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Flashcards in Nervous Tissue Anatomy Deck (63)
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1

what is the enteric neural system?

innervation of the gut

2

what is the autonomic nervous system?

having to do with the sympathetic and parasympathetic system

3

what is the somatic nervous system?

having to do with the somatic motor neurons

4

what is the soma?

cell body of the neuron

5

what is the telodendria?

branching of the axon with the end-bulb

6

what is an axon collateral?

axon that juts off the major axon

7

what is the axon helliock, initial segment or trigger zone?

area where the first action potential will be generated
-where body of neuron and axon meet

8

what is the graded potential?

areas on the dendrites

9

what is the myelin sheath?

surrounds the axon

10

what do Schwann cells do?

lay down myelin only located in the peripheral nervous system
-one Schwann cell: one node of myelin

11

what do oligodendrocytes do?

lay down myelin in CNS
-can coat many cells

12

what are the nodes of Ranvier

spaces in between Schwann cells where action potentials jump to
-sodium and potassium voltage gated channels are here (not underneath the myelin)

13

what kind of ion channels do nerve cells have?

voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels

14

what is the axolemma?

the plasma membrane of an axon

15

what is the neurolemma?

the plasma membrane of the Schwann cells

16

what are missile substance?

ribosomes within neuron cells

17

do CNS neurons regrow?

no other cells have to take over their function
-don't have centrioles (they don't divide)

18

what is a neuroglial cell?

small, tiny cell, more abundant

19

what are the 4 types of CNS neural cells?

astrocytes
oligodendrocyte
ependymal
microglial

20

what are the 2 types of PNS neural cells?

Schwann cell
satellite cell

21

what are the 3 types of ligands in the body? (substance that binds to a receptor to initiate change)

neurotransmitters
hormones
drugs

22

what kind of ion channels do dendrites have?

ligand (chemically) gated

23

what kind of ion channels do axons have?

voltage gated

24

what is special about neurons?

multitude of neuron transmitters
multitude of ion channels

25

what ion channels are present on the axon?

sodium and potassium exlusively

26

what is the normal picture of neurons

hundreds and thousands of neural cells touching one another

27

what is the main purpose of the dendrite?

increase receptive surface area of the neural cell

28

what does anterograde mean?

moving neurotransmitter from cell body to synaptic end ball
-uses kinesin
-nutrients
-enzymes
-mitochondria

29

which type of protein moves neurotransmitter from synaptic ball to cell body (retrograde)?

dynein
-may send recycled membrane vesicles
-growth factors
-other chemicals
-some diseases

30

alzheimers mechanism

microtubules within neurons get tangles up and stop working

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