Flashcards in Nervous Tissue Anatomy Deck (63)
what is the enteric neural system?
innervation of the gut
what is the autonomic nervous system?
having to do with the sympathetic and parasympathetic system
what is the somatic nervous system?
having to do with the somatic motor neurons
what is the soma?
cell body of the neuron
what is the telodendria?
branching of the axon with the end-bulb
what is an axon collateral?
axon that juts off the major axon
what is the axon helliock, initial segment or trigger zone?
area where the first action potential will be generated
-where body of neuron and axon meet
what is the graded potential?
areas on the dendrites
what is the myelin sheath?
surrounds the axon
what do Schwann cells do?
lay down myelin only located in the peripheral nervous system
-one Schwann cell: one node of myelin
what do oligodendrocytes do?
lay down myelin in CNS
-can coat many cells
what are the nodes of Ranvier
spaces in between Schwann cells where action potentials jump to
-sodium and potassium voltage gated channels are here (not underneath the myelin)
what kind of ion channels do nerve cells have?
voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels
what is the axolemma?
the plasma membrane of an axon
what is the neurolemma?
the plasma membrane of the Schwann cells
what are missile substance?
ribosomes within neuron cells
do CNS neurons regrow?
no other cells have to take over their function
-don't have centrioles (they don't divide)
what is a neuroglial cell?
small, tiny cell, more abundant
what are the 4 types of CNS neural cells?
what are the 2 types of PNS neural cells?
what are the 3 types of ligands in the body? (substance that binds to a receptor to initiate change)
what kind of ion channels do dendrites have?
ligand (chemically) gated
what kind of ion channels do axons have?
what is special about neurons?
multitude of neuron transmitters
multitude of ion channels
what ion channels are present on the axon?
sodium and potassium exlusively
what is the normal picture of neurons
hundreds and thousands of neural cells touching one another
what is the main purpose of the dendrite?
increase receptive surface area of the neural cell
what does anterograde mean?
moving neurotransmitter from cell body to synaptic end ball
which type of protein moves neurotransmitter from synaptic ball to cell body (retrograde)?
-may send recycled membrane vesicles