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Flashcards in Urine Studies Deck (59):
1

urinalysis can be used to diagnose

renal or urinary tract disease
monitor renal or urinary tract disease
detect metabolic or systemic disease (DM)

2

cystocentesis

remove fluid from the bladder using a suprapubic catheter

3

first morning specimen

pt. gets specimen first thing in the morning
must use a preservative

4

random urine specimen

obtained during the day w/o pt prior notice
-drug testing
-most common

5

timed urine collection

pt collects all urine over a period of 24 hours
-does not include the first morning void (would include urine produced during the night)
-proteinuria

6

urine for culture and sensitivity

examines bacteria, sterile, midstream collection, cultured w/in one hour of collection (doesn't usually happen)
-avoids contamination and cell lysis

7

cloudy urine indicates

presence of WBC, RBC, bacteria

8

pale yellow to amber urine indicates

urochrome (a pigment which is a product of bilirubin metabolism)

9

red urine indicates

pt is bleeding, dark red (from the kidneys)
bright red (from bladder)

10

dark yellow urine indicates

bilirubin

11

specific gravity

measures kidney's ability to conc the urine
-weight is compared to weight of distilled water
-value is affected by amt of solutes, volume, hydration

12

low specific gravity indicates

diabetes insipidus
chronic renal diseases (diminished conc ability)

13

renal threshold

180mg/dl
point at which kidneys start allowing sugar through

14

anti-diuretic hormone

in posterior pituitary, keeps your body from diuresing (urinating)

15

high specific gravity indicates

DM
excessive water loss (dehydration)
increased secrection of ADH (urine is concentrated)
lots of solute in the urine

16

urine osmolality

number of particles in a unit of solution-correlates w/specific gravity but not the same thing
normal is 50-1200 mOsm/kg

17

pH

normal is 4.6-8.0 (avg is 6.0)

18

low pH (acidic)

acidosis, diet high in cranberries

19

high pH (basic)

some bacteria, UTI

20

protein

no protein should be in the urine
measured negative (-) to 4+
qualitative check

21

proteinuria indicates

glomerular injury (allows proteins, albumin, to seep into filtrate)
if pos for protein, should f/u with 24 hr specimen

22

proteinuria indicates also

preeclampsia-HTN, edema, proteinuria
eclampsia
diabetes -decreased renal flow
glomerulonephritis

23

blood

measured negative (-) to 4+

24

hematuria

bleeding w/i the urinary tract may be gross or microscopic

25

positive microscopy needs to have

3-5 RBC per high power field

26

hematuria indicates

cystitis (most common cause of hematuria)
glomerulonephritis
cancer

27

false positive on a heme test could be caused by

beets

28

microscopy

looking at urine under the microscope

29

glucose

normally negative
positive is 100-2000 mg/dl

30

glucose in urine indicates

possible diabetes (unless pregnant)

31

ketones in urine

normally negative
positive reported as 1+ to 4+

32

ketone (definition)

byproduct of fatty acid catabolism
used as energy source when glucose cannot be used
breakdown of muscle

33

ketonuria indicates

poorly controlled DM (insulin resistance)
hyperglycemia
diabetic ketoacidosis
alcoholic ketoacidosis
starvation
high protein diets

34

bilirubin

breakdown product of hemoglobin

35

urobilinogen

bilirubin that has been transformed by the kidney
-water soluble

36

urobilinogen increase indicates

hemolysis

37

leukocyte esterase

screens for WBC

38

positive leuk esterase indicates

UTI
-may be contaminated by vaginal discharge

39

nitrites

gram negative bacteria takes nitrates and turns them into nitrites

40

positive nitrites indicates

UTI with a gram negative bacteria

41

microscopic examination can note

RBC, WBC, epithelial cells (squamous, renal tubular)
crystals (indicates stone formation) varies w/ dz and pH

42

most common cause of a urinary stone

calcium oxalate

43

uric acid crystals

crystals in acidic urine indicates gout

44

calcium oxalate

crystals in acidic urine composes kidney stones (envelopes)

45

calcium phosphate

crystals in alkaline urine

46

lots of epithelial cells indicate

contamination from vagina or penis

47

triple phosphate

coffin lids a/w stones, chronic cystitis

48

casts

formed in DCT
form when overproduction of cells, and conc of Na+, decreased urine flow
cells in the form of whatever area it came out of

49

hyaline cast

protein cast
strenuous excercise or dehydration

50

cellular cast

abundance of red or white blood cells

51

granular cast

cellular or protein material that has been broken down
-renal disease
-strenuous excersize

52

fatty cast

overproduction of lipids
oval fat bodies
within cellular cast
-nephrotic sydrome

53

waxy cast

cell or hyaline cast that has been present for a long time and has broken down
diminished flow
-long term kidney disease
-diabetic nephropathy
-malignant HTN

54

epithelial cast

may be squamous cell or renal tubule
-renal tubular indicates glomerulonephritis
-from bladder indicates tumor, infection or polyps

55

WBC cast

found in infections
-pyelonephritis
-inflammatory nephritis (lupus)

56

RBC cast

found in disruption of blood/urine barrier
indicates membrane damage (glomerulonephritis)

57

conjugated bilirubin

bilirubin that has passed through the liver and is now water soluble

58

unconjugated bilirubin

bilirubin that has not passed through the liver and is fat soluble

59

Tamm-Horsfall protein

most common protein that makes up hyaline casts

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