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Flashcards in Urine Studies Deck (59)
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1

urinalysis can be used to diagnose

renal or urinary tract disease
monitor renal or urinary tract disease
detect metabolic or systemic disease (DM)

2

cystocentesis

remove fluid from the bladder using a suprapubic catheter

3

first morning specimen

pt. gets specimen first thing in the morning
must use a preservative

4

random urine specimen

obtained during the day w/o pt prior notice
-drug testing
-most common

5

timed urine collection

pt collects all urine over a period of 24 hours
-does not include the first morning void (would include urine produced during the night)
-proteinuria

6

urine for culture and sensitivity

examines bacteria, sterile, midstream collection, cultured w/in one hour of collection (doesn't usually happen)
-avoids contamination and cell lysis

7

cloudy urine indicates

presence of WBC, RBC, bacteria

8

pale yellow to amber urine indicates

urochrome (a pigment which is a product of bilirubin metabolism)

9

red urine indicates

pt is bleeding, dark red (from the kidneys)
bright red (from bladder)

10

dark yellow urine indicates

bilirubin

11

specific gravity

measures kidney's ability to conc the urine
-weight is compared to weight of distilled water
-value is affected by amt of solutes, volume, hydration

12

low specific gravity indicates

diabetes insipidus
chronic renal diseases (diminished conc ability)

13

renal threshold

180mg/dl
point at which kidneys start allowing sugar through

14

anti-diuretic hormone

in posterior pituitary, keeps your body from diuresing (urinating)

15

high specific gravity indicates

DM
excessive water loss (dehydration)
increased secrection of ADH (urine is concentrated)
lots of solute in the urine

16

urine osmolality

number of particles in a unit of solution-correlates w/specific gravity but not the same thing
normal is 50-1200 mOsm/kg

17

pH

normal is 4.6-8.0 (avg is 6.0)

18

low pH (acidic)

acidosis, diet high in cranberries

19

high pH (basic)

some bacteria, UTI

20

protein

no protein should be in the urine
measured negative (-) to 4+
qualitative check

21

proteinuria indicates

glomerular injury (allows proteins, albumin, to seep into filtrate)
if pos for protein, should f/u with 24 hr specimen

22

proteinuria indicates also

preeclampsia-HTN, edema, proteinuria
eclampsia
diabetes -decreased renal flow
glomerulonephritis

23

blood

measured negative (-) to 4+

24

hematuria

bleeding w/i the urinary tract may be gross or microscopic

25

positive microscopy needs to have

3-5 RBC per high power field

26

hematuria indicates

cystitis (most common cause of hematuria)
glomerulonephritis
cancer

27

false positive on a heme test could be caused by

beets

28

microscopy

looking at urine under the microscope

29

glucose

normally negative
positive is 100-2000 mg/dl

30

glucose in urine indicates

possible diabetes (unless pregnant)

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