Eyes Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Eyes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eyes Deck (94):
1

Palpebral fissure

opening between the eyelids (slit)

2

bulbar conjunctiva

mucous membrane that covers the anterior eyeball (on the bulb itself)

3

limbus

where the conjunctiva meets the cornea

4

palpebral conjunctiva

mucous membrane that lines the eyelids (on the eye lid)

5

adnexa

surrounding structure of the eye (not the eye ball)

6

globe

eyeball

7

iris

colored part of the eye

8

lacrimal gland

makes tears sweep across the eye (located lateral and superior to the upper eye lid)

9

passageway of tears

inferior canaliculus
common canaliculus
nasolacrimal sac
nasolacrimal duct
inferior meatus
inferior concha

10

cornea

clear structure the is in the front of the globe
-responsible for the refracting of light (gross)

11

conjuctiva

layer of epithelial cells straddles globe on either side anteriorly

12

pupil

hole in which light passes through to the retina

13

lens

responsible for the refracting of light (fine tune)

14

ciliary body

muscle that controls stretching of lens according to amoutn of light entering the eye

15

zonular fibers

connect ciliary body to lens

16

posterior chamber

behind iris but in front of the zonular fibers

17

three layers of the globe

schlera-fiborous CT layer-structure
choroid-vascular layer-nutrients waste
retina-rods and cones-visual

18

optic disc

where all optic fibers from the retina collect

19

optic nerve

carries nerve impulses from the eye to the brain

20

canal of schlem

where aqueous humor exits the eye

21

glaucoma

increased intraocular pressure
-can be caused by obstruction of canal of schlem

22

macula

highest concentration of your visual receptors

23

fovea centralis

where there is the most acute vision

24

ipsilateral side

same side

25

contralateral side

opposite side

26

tumor at the pituitary gland could cause

peripheral vision loss
-where the lateral vision crosses over

27

homonimous hemianopsia

disruption of the optic tract on the left or right side
-causes visual disruption of peripheral in one eye and medial in the other

28

problems in the occipital portion cause

quadrant shaped or odd shaped parts of vision
-optic nerves fan out and where the brian interprets the information from the light

29

rods are responsible for

low light vision

30

cones are responsible for

color vision

31

which direction does neural impulse travel once it hits the retina?

back to front (hits the back of the retina and moves forward to the ganglion cells)

32

CN II

optic nerve
-vision
-light perception

33

CN III

oculomotor
-innervates 4 of the 6 extraocular muscles
-parasympathetic fibers (orbicularis oculii and iris circular fibers)
-elevation of lid
-ciliary body (accomodation)

34

CN IV

trochlea
-innervates superior oblique muscle

35

CN VI

abducens
-innervates the lateral rectus muscle

36

sympathetic fibers innervate

iris and levator palpebrae muscle
-raises eyelid and dialates pupils
-originate in hypothalamus, go down the neck and back up to the eye

37

important questions to ask when diagnosing eye problems

gradual/sudden?
changes in your vision?
close/distant?
areas you can't see-fixed or moving?
flashing lights?
double vision (side by side or on top)/blurry?

38

common eye symptoms

pain, redness, tearing/watering, itching, dryness

39

scatoma

flashing lights

40

what is the vital sign of the eye?

visual acuity

41

OD

right eye (dexter)-not used anymore

42

OS

left eye (sinister)-not used anymore

43

OU

both eyes (uterque)-not used anymore

44

standardized charts used to test visual acuity

Snellen chart
Handheld chart
Reading
Shapes/numbers

45

emmetropia

normal vision

46

myopia

near sighted (eyeball is too long)

47

hyperopia

far sighted (eyeball is too short)

48

presbyopia

old age vision loss (lens doesn't change shape as well as it used to, so we lose that fine tuning)
-harder to adjust from long vision to short vision

49

amblyopia

visual deficit due to poor ocular deficit

50

astigmatism

cornea or lens does to refract reflect light
correctly
-corneal
-lenticular

51

"legal"blindness

2200 or worse with correction

52

amaurosis fugax

fleeting blindness
-usually related to a vascular problem

53

anterior eye exam includes

1. lids and lashes
2. nasolacrimal system
3.

54

what are the functions of the lids and lashes

protection of the eye (light, foreign objects)
moistening of the cornea (w/lacrimal apparatus)
-vision is affected by dry eyes

55

canthus

angle of the eyelid
-medial, lateral

56

tarsal plates

CT that give lids their integrity

57

meibomian glands

sebacous glands that produce fluid that goes onto the eye
-produce antibodies that help fight infections
-superior to eyelashes

58

zeis glands

sebacous glands that produce fluid
-small gland on either side of the superior eyelash

59

what are the functions of the nasolacrimal system?

ocular moisture
-protective
-vision
-anti-microbial

60

conjuntival fornix

superior and inferior
-crease between the globe and the lid of the eye

61

conjuntivitis

inflammation of the conjuntiva
-most common cause of infectious conjuctivitis is viral
-usually on one side only
-acute

62

allergic conjuntivitis

differntial
-clear, watery, mucousy drainage
-bilateral
-long term

63

cobblestoning

enlargement, proliferation of tissue related to chronic inflammation of tissue as an allergic response

64

bacterial conjuntivitis

drainage of pus
-purulant

65

chemosis

redenned edemonous conjuntiva

66

subconjunctival hemorrhage

increase in intrathoracic pressure
-coughing
-vomiting
-ruptures small vessel between schlera and conjuntiva (causes blood to leak in between two layers)
-more common with people on blood thinners and elderly
-recurrent could indicate bleeding issues

67

pterygium

triangular overgrowth of conjuctival epithelium
-more common in people exposed to bright sun and dust, hot environments
-treatment is not indicated unless they get to big and grow over the pupil
-usually nasal

68

pinguecula

area of nodular or enlarged CT
benign
-usually lateral side
-treatment is usually not indicated

69

ectropion

outward turning of the eyelash and sometimes lid
-usually related to age
-requires surgical correction

70

entropion

inward turning of the lash
-history of infectious processes
-genetic variant
-blephoritis
-can burn lashes off because of corneal irritation

71

ptosis

drooping of the upper lid
-may be age related or nerve issues

72

blepharitis

inflammation of the lid
-redness, flaking, crusting
-commonly associated with acne rosacea
-can be infectious
-chronic occurence is beefy red

73

xanthelasma

skin tags (fibrous and fatty) found around the nasal canthous of the eye
-may be seen in people with elevated triglycerides, but usually it is not specific to the eye)
-no treatment indicated

74

dacryocystitis

inflammation of the nasolacrimal gland

75

orbital cellulitis

infection of the bony orbit surrounding the eye
-ocular emergency

76

periorbital cellulitis

infection of skin and soft tissue surrounding the eye

77

hordeolum

sty-infection of a gland in the lid
-presents on lid margin
-tender, irritated
-hot compress may drain spontaneously

78

chalazion

appearance similar to hordeolum but has developed scar tissue
-chronic problem
-scarred down lesion
-surgical correction

79

what is the normal size of the pupil?

3-5 mm

80

miosis

pupillary constriction

81

mydriasis

pupillary dilation

82

anisocoria

unequal pupil size
-found normally in 20% of people
-benign if <0.5 mm and reaction to light is normal

83

direct reaction

when you shine a light on the eye, it constricts

84

consensual reaction

when you shine a light in one eye and the other eye constricts also

85

pupillary near reaction

pupils contract when you move an object from far to close to try to focus better

86

accommodation

adjusting depending on what you are looking at

87

what happens when you look at something far away?

pupil dilates
ciliary muscles relax, which pulls ligaments taught and causes lens to get thinner

88

what happens when you look at something close up?

pupils contract
ciliary muscle contracts, which relaxes ligaments and makes lens thicker

89

Tonic (Adie's) pupil

dilated pupil
slow light response
poor accommodation (visual blurring)
usually not associated with any pathological finding
may have deep tendon reflexes

90

what is the normal size of the pupil?

3-5 mm

91

Oculomotor paralysis (CN III)

pupil is chronically dilated
deviated eyes
usually only one eye

91

Argyll Robertson pupil

small irregular pupils
good accommodation
do not react ot light
seen in CNS tertiary syphilis

91

Horner's syndrome

interruption of sympathetic fibers to the eye
presents with
-ptosis
-miosis
-anhydrosis

91

anhydrosis

lack of sweating

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