Cardiovascular Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Exam 2 Deck (31):
1

CAD

coronary artery disease

2

HF

heart failure

3

NCEP

national cholesterol education program (gives evidence-based guidelines of risk for CAD)

4

what is the fasting recommendation for LDL draw?

9-12 hours

5

what is a good total cholesterol?

<200 mg/dL

6

what is a borderline high total cholesterol?

200-239

7

what is a high total cholesterol?

>240

8

what are the CHD risk equivalents?

DM (controlled or uncontrolled)
PVD (build up of plaque in the legs)
AAA
Carotid artery disease
10 yr risk of more than 20%
(as good as having a positive finding on an angiogram)

9

what is a low value of HDL?

<40

10

what is a high value of HDL?

>60

11

PND?

paroxsymal nocturnal dyspnea
-fluid covering over the lungs that accumulates overnight causes the pt to wake up SOB and get up quickly

12

why does orthopnea happen?

when they lay down, fluid covers their lungs and they can't breathe

13

paroxsymal

comes and goes

14

what typically aggravates cardiac disease?

exertion
-increase oxygen demand of the heart

15

what alleviates cardiac pain?

resting
aspirin

16

what is the difference between ischemia and infarction?

ischemia is transient and the heart is not getting oxygen (partial block of an area)
infarction means dead tissue

17

what happens during edema related to cardiac issues?

heart is not dealing with fluid appropriately and the excess fluid goes into the interstitial spaces

18

press your finger in and the dent stays

pitting edema

19

dependent edema

extremities that are most affected by gravity

20

what is hyperlipidemia?

elevated cholesterol

21

precordium

areas where you listen over the chest

22

what factors determine venous pressure?

blood volume
*RH function*-first place where blood enters the heart
LV output
(they are generally flat and can't be seen)

23

JVD (jugular venous distention) may indicate

potential increase in RA pressure
problem with the heart (back up in the heart, which backs up into the venous structures)

24

increased blood volume is a normal finding in

pregnancy

25

what is the leading cause of R sided heart failure?

L sided heart failure

26

what are some causes of R heart problems?

pericarditis
cardiac tamponade
RV hypertrophy
obstruction of any kind
tricuspid stenosis

27

what causes flattened neck veins?

hypovolemia

28

what is the first sign of left sided HF?

dyspnea
fluid backs up into the lungs

29

what is the first sign of R sided HF?

pedal edema
fluid backs up into the body

30

which JV is the most lateral?

external JV

31

what differentiates the carotid from the jugular?

pulsations
carotid is more bump/bump
jugular is more undulating

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