Flashcards in Cardiovascular Exam 2 Deck (31):
coronary artery disease
national cholesterol education program (gives evidence-based guidelines of risk for CAD)
what is the fasting recommendation for LDL draw?
what is a good total cholesterol?
what is a borderline high total cholesterol?
what is a high total cholesterol?
what are the CHD risk equivalents?
DM (controlled or uncontrolled)
PVD (build up of plaque in the legs)
Carotid artery disease
10 yr risk of more than 20%
(as good as having a positive finding on an angiogram)
what is a low value of HDL?
what is a high value of HDL?
paroxsymal nocturnal dyspnea
-fluid covering over the lungs that accumulates overnight causes the pt to wake up SOB and get up quickly
why does orthopnea happen?
when they lay down, fluid covers their lungs and they can't breathe
comes and goes
what typically aggravates cardiac disease?
-increase oxygen demand of the heart
what alleviates cardiac pain?
what is the difference between ischemia and infarction?
ischemia is transient and the heart is not getting oxygen (partial block of an area)
infarction means dead tissue
what happens during edema related to cardiac issues?
heart is not dealing with fluid appropriately and the excess fluid goes into the interstitial spaces
press your finger in and the dent stays
extremities that are most affected by gravity
what is hyperlipidemia?
areas where you listen over the chest
what factors determine venous pressure?
*RH function*-first place where blood enters the heart
(they are generally flat and can't be seen)
JVD (jugular venous distention) may indicate
potential increase in RA pressure
problem with the heart (back up in the heart, which backs up into the venous structures)
increased blood volume is a normal finding in
what is the leading cause of R sided heart failure?
L sided heart failure
what are some causes of R heart problems?
obstruction of any kind
what causes flattened neck veins?
what is the first sign of left sided HF?
fluid backs up into the lungs
what is the first sign of R sided HF?
fluid backs up into the body
which JV is the most lateral?