Acid-Base Disorders Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Acid-Base Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid-Base Disorders Deck (50):
1

PCO2

partial plasma for CO2

2

what values are found in an ABG?

pH, HCO3, PCO2

3

when do you do the Allen test?

prior to drawing blood

4

why do we order an ABG?

assess respiratory (ventilation) and metabolic (renal) and electrolyte homeostasis
-manage ventilator
-pre-op assessment
-acute/critical illness assessment

5

why do we use radial instead of femoral artery?

it is a cleaner site

6

what does the allen test accomplish?

identifies if the ulnar artery will compensate for the radial artery if you block it while taking the sample
-ensures patency

7

what kind of test tube will you use to get a blood gas?

green top (heparin)

8

how quickly should your blood gas sample get to the lab?

ASAP or place on ice

9

one or two sticks?

you may use lidocaine to numb the area prior to drawing blood from the RA

10

positive Allen test means

ulnar artery is not patent and you cannot use that hand (7-10 seconds return)

11

contraindications for RA

no palpable pulse
cellulitis or open infection
AV fistula
severe coagulopathy
positive Allen test

12

what are the potential complications of drawing a blood gas?

arterial occlusion
penetration of other important structures nearby

13

what is the normal pH of arterial blood?

7.4

14

what is the normal pH of venous blood and interstitial fluid

7.35 (has extra CO2 released from nearby tissues that makes it more acidic)

15

what is the normal pH of intracellular fluid

estimated to be between 6.0-7.4

16

what is considered acidosis?

<7.35

17

what is considered alkalosis?

>7.45

18

what are the lower and upper limits of pH that support life?

6.8<8.0 (more than a few hours at the high and low end will end life)

19

where is Hydrogen found most?

intracellular (which makes cells more acidic)

20

what is the alkaline substance in the body?

HCO3

21

what is the acidic substance in the body?

H+ and CO2 (H2CO3)

22

how does the body hold onto CO2?

breathing slower (found in alkaline patients)

23

where is bicarb manufactured?

kidney (slower than the lungs when it comes to compensation)

24

which organ responds first when pH becomes out of balance?

lungs

25

which organ controls retention and secretion of H+

kidney

26

what are the normal values for bicarb?

22-26 mEq/L

27

what is the alkalotic value of bicarb?

>26
-metabolic alkalosis

28

what is the acidic value of bicarb?

<22
-metabolic acidosis

29

what are the normal values of PCO2?

35-45 mm/Hg

30

what is the alkalotic value of PCO2

<35
-respiratory alkalosis

31

what is the acidodic value of PCO2

>45
-respiratory acidosis

32

metabolic acidosis

acidosis caused by a primary decrease in bicarb
-diarrhea (loss of HCO3 in feces)

33

metabolic alkalosis

caused by a primary increase in bicarb concentration
-drug overconsumption of HCO3 (overcorrecting in renal disease)

34

respiratory acidosis

caused by an increase in PCO2 from a respiratory disturbance
-hypoventilation (drug use)

35

respiratory alkalosis

caused by a decrease in PCOz from a respiratory disturbance
-hyperventilation (anxiety)

36

what is the time frame of the renal compensatory response?

several hours to 3-5 days

37

what is the time frame of the respiratory compensatory response?

minutes to max in several hours

38

SOB can also be called

hyperventilation (compensatory response of acidosis)

39

how much will ventilation increase in acidosis?

4-5 times normal

40

how much will ventilation slow down in alkalosis?

will slow but not as significantly

41

COPD who are former smokers are in a chronic state of

respiratory acidosis

42

what is metabolic compensation in acidosis?

reabsorb all filtered HCO3
produce new HCO3 which is added back into the extracellular fluid
secrete H+
-net effect is lowered extracellular H+

43

what is metabolic compensation in alkalosis

increase secretion of HCO3
***most of the compensation is respiratory***

44

what is a chem 7

BMP

45

what CO2 does the BMP come with?

not the same as a ABG

46

what is the formula to calculate anion gap?

Na - Cl+HCO3 (from blood gas)

47

what does elevated anion gap indicate?

metabolic acidosis

48

what is the Delta gap?

excess anion gap
AG-12 +HCO3

49

what does <23 delta gap indicate?

metabolic acidosis

50

what does >30 delta gap indicate?

metabolic alkalosis

Decks in Medicine Class (146):