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Flashcards in Gait Analysis Deck (50):
1

what is force measurement?

kinetic measurement
studies forces acting on the body (internal and external)

2

what are EMG studies used for?

study electrical activity during muscle contraction

3

what are limitations of EMGs?

problems with cross-over or cross-talk which makes it difficult to determine which muscle is contracting

4

what is intramuscular pressure?

determines pressure within the muscle
accounts for both active and passive muscle tension

5

what does the clinician need to know about gait problems?

1. is it structural?
2. is it joint or soft tissue related?
3. is it myopathic (muscular dystrophy)
4. is it neurologic? (progressive or non)

6

what is a gait cycle?

activity that occurs between the heel strike of one leg all the way to the heel strike of the same leg

7

what is the stride length?

distance of the step in one gait cycle

8

what is the stance phase?

60% of the time during the gait
when the foot is in contact with the ground

9

what is the swing phase?

40% of the time during the gait
feet are swinging

10

what is the rest of the 20%?

when both feet are in contact with the ground
double support

11

what is a step?

heel strike of left foot to heel strike of right foot

12

what is a stride?

heel strike of right foot to heel strike of right foot

13

what are 5 components of stance phase analysis?

1. heel strike
2. foot flat
3. midstance
4. heel-off
5. toe-off

14

what can cause a wider horizontal displacement?

balance problems to keep themselves from falling

15

what is a trendelenburg gate?

pelvic drop on one or both side
caused by gluteus medius weakness
ruptured disc?
side that drops is on the opposite side of weakness

16

what are the 5 main reasons for abnormal gait?

muscular weakness
joint/muscle ROM limitations
neurological problem
pain
leg length discrepancy

17

what is a sign of leg length discrepancy?

circumduction on the long side

18

how does gluteus maximus weakness manifest?

rocking horse gait
hand on affected hip to push the hip forward so they don't fall

19

how does quads weakness manifest?

either pushing knee to lock or cocking knee to lock

20

how does hamstring weakness manifest?

genu recurvatum gait
hyperextension of the knee with each step

21

how does dorsiflexion weakness manifest?

foot slap gait
high steppage gait

22

how does triceps surae weakness manifest?

sore foot limp
shortened step length on the unaffected side
more pronounced when going up an ingline

23

what is a waddling gait?

seen in muscular dystrophy
a/w lumbar lordosis and a steppage gait
to swing the leg forward, the entire side of the body must swing forward

24

what is a hemiplegic gait?

lands flat-footed and no arm swing on affected side

25

what is ataxic gait?

balance disruption
usu. cerebellar involvement
uncoordinated/jerky

26

what is the festinating gait of parkinsonism?

difficulty initiating, as it gets started, goes faster and faster

27

what is a crouch gait?

bilateral lower extermity involvement
excessive lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt, hip and knee flexion
exaggerated arm swing

28

what is an antalgic gait?

spend less time on the painful foot
shortened step length on uninvolved side

29

what is the gait compensation for a leg length discrepancy of up to 3"?

dropping pelvis on affected side (stresses low back)

30

what is the gait compensation for a leg length discrepancy of up to 3-5"?

equinnus gait, walks on ball of foot on shorter side

31

what is the gait compensation for a leg length discrepancy of up to 5"?

drop pelvis, equinnus gait AND flex uninvolved knee

32

what is a 4 point gait pattern?

at any time there are 4 points of contact on the ground

33

what is a 3-1 point gait pattern?

crutch stays with the affect leg and both crutches are used, which makes it partial weight bearing

34

what is a 3 point gait pattern?

non-weight bearing, two crutches swing through,

35

what is 2 point gait pattern?

using crutches as support, but walking normally. crutches used to balance and take some of the weight off

36

what is TTWB?

toe-touch weight bearing (can only do with crutches or walker)

37

what is WBAT?

weight bearing as tolerated

38

what is PWB?

partial weight bearing (25, 50, 75%)

39

what is FWB?

full weight bearing

40

why use a tilt table?

good for gradually accomodating to elevation for pts who have been lying supine for a long time
-must monitor for vital signs

41

when would you use parallel bars?

maximum support needed

42

how do you measure for crutches?

3 fingers below axilla

43

what position should the crutches be in?

tripod position

44

what should you advice patients about using crutches?

don't lean down on them

45

what is a platform attachment?

used when they have had a hand or arm injury (flexed elbow), a platform is used to fasten crutch to their arm in a way that allows them to use it

46

when would you use a cane?

pt who needs a little bit of balance help
should be fit to the base of the thumb

47

what should you remember about transferring?

always transfer toward the strong side

48

what is important to ask the pt when transferring?

what help do they need?

49

where should you stand on steps to support patients?

on the low side

50

if you are good you go up...

if you are bad, you go down

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