what is diapedises?
WBC moving from circulation to tissue
what binds together during diapedesis?
selectins with integrins
what is the range of leukocytosis?
> 11,000 wbc
what is neutropenia?
low level of neutrophils, bad dog
what is defensin?
antibiotic like protein that is made by neutrophils
what is in the granules of eosinophils?
enzymes that match their function
-cannot digest bacteria
what is in the granules of the basophil?
histamine (allergies) and heparin (anticoagulant)
what WBC causes allergic symptoms?
-eosinophil tries to help control the reaction
what does mast cell do?
contains histamine and heparin
play a role in allergic phenomenon along with IgE
also produces tumor necrosis factor
what are the phases of the platelet cascade?
platelet plug formation
coagulation (blood clotting)
what organ makes thrombopoeitin?
what is the life span of platelet?
what is normal platelet count?
what is the most common cause of thrombocytopenia?
what is a symptom of TTP?
petechiae and purpura
what is the lower threshold of platelets?
low platelets can also be linked to what?
what is the role of thromboxane A2?
calls on more platelets to come to the injury
what is the role of PGI2? (prostacyclin)
controls the area around the hole so that platelets are locally aggregated
what hormone does platelet contain?
encourages healing of wound area
what two things cause platelets to become sticky?
ADP and thromboxane A2
which two things cause vasoconstriction?
serotonin and thromboxane A2
what happens to platelets when it becomes activated?
open their binding site for fibrinogen
what is NO’s role in clotting?
inhibits platelet plug expansion around site of trauma
what is the mechanism of aspirin?
inhibits cyclooxygenase enzyme that generates protaglandins and thromboxanes
-low dose causes stead state decrease in platelet COX activity
how long is aspirin’s affect?
life of the platelet (5-10 days)
what is Plavix used for?
reduce platelet aggregation
which ion is important for the coag cascade?
which clotting factors need vitamin K?
factors 2, 7, 9, 10
what produces vitamin k?
bacteria in the GI tract
who would have low levels of vitamin K?
ppl who have lipid malabsorption
what is plasmin?
enzyme that breaks down clot
what is one tissue plasminogen activator?
tpa used in suspected stroke
what systems limit the spread of the clot?
TF pathway inhibitor
pathway triggered by thrombin
how does heparin work?
how does TFPI work?
binds to factor VII to limit to damaged area