what is the definition of HIV?
infection with retrovirus that depletes CD4+lymphocytes
what is the definitino of AIDS?
CD4 count < 200 OR any of the following
- pneumocystis jirovechii pneumonia
- cryptococcal meningitis
- toxoplasmosis of CNS
- Karposi’s sarcoma
(you won’t get these unless you have HIV or impaired T-cell functioning)
what are the antiretroviral agents?
who is at a greater risk for contraction HIV?
ppl with STDs (herpes, syphillis-lack skin barrier)
HIV risk for uninfected pt depends on many factors, including…
infected persons viral load
recipients immune system
quantity of exposure
what two co-receptors does HIV bind to?
CCR5 and CXCR4
present on the surface of CD4+ t lymphocyte
what does reverse transcriptase do?
converts single stranded viral RNA into viral DNA
what does HIV do to “hide” in the cell?
HIV DNA enters host nucleus and the enzyme integrase hides HIV DNA within the host cell’s own DNA
what is the provirus?
the integrated HIV DNA
-remains dormant for many years
why is RNA polymerase not a target of therapy?
our normal cells need it
what does protease do?
helps in assembling HIV proteins
what are typical symptoms of acute HIV?
what will give the best index of suspicion of HIV?
when will antibody test be positive after exposure?
3 weeks to 6 months
diagnosis requires what as of 2012?
what should your screening test be?
- very low false negative
- you don’t want any positives to slip by
what is considered to be a diagnostic HIV test?
testing for HIV based on clinical signs or symptoms
what would be a targeted HIV test?
testing for HIV based on bieng part of a subpopulation that is at higher risk based on behavioral, clinical or demographic
what is opt-out HIV screening?
testing for HIV after notifying the pt that the test will be done, but would have to opt out to not be tested
what demographic comprises the “late testers”
younger, hetero, AA or hispanic, less educated
what is the normal CD4/CD8 ratio?
CD4 of 500 would be 29%
CD4 of 200 would be 14%
what would be considered an undetectable level of viral load?
which gene is a/w life threatening problem with abacavir?
what type of vaccinations would you use for an HIV pt?
what extra vaccine would you give to HIV pts?
pneumococcal 13 and 23
what kind of HIV pts would receive Hep A and B vaccinations?