when does a lymphocyte complete maturation?
when ti becomes exposed to an antigen
what is humoral immunity?
B cell and antibody mediated
only functions on organisms OUTSIDE the cell
what is cellular immunity?
T cells that directly kill infected cells
what is clonal selection?
when a lymphocyte divides and differentiates in response to a specific antigen
where does clonal selection occur?
in secondary lymphatic tissue
what two characteristics do antigens have?
what are the strongest antigens?
what is a hapten?
is an incomplete antigen
has reactivity, but not immunogenicity
what is an epitope?
specific portion of the molecule that evokes an immune response
which cells do not have MHC 1?
which T cells deal with exogenous antigens?
helper T (CD4)
which T cells deal with endogenous antigens?
how is a T cell receptor different than an antibody?
has only 2 polypeptide chains instead of 4
what is anergy?
TCR bound to an MHC presenting complex with no costimulation
list the steps of T cell activation and cloning?
1. APC binds with TCR
2. CD 4 protein and cytokines costimulate to activate T cell
3. T cells are cloned into active cells and memory cells (mediated by interleukin 2)
what are TH2 cells?
regulatory cells that stimulate proliferation of the other T cells and B cells
which interleukin costimulates CD4 cells?
which interleukin costimulates CD8 cells?
in the humoral immune system, what is circulating?
list the process of B cell activation
1. B cell takes in antigens and presents with a MHC II complex
2. T helper cells recognizes antigen and give costimulation to proliferate B cells
3. T cell secretes interleukin 2 that functions and co stimulator
4 B cells get cloned
how many antigen binding sites do most antibodies have?
what 4 functions do antibodies serve?
4. complement (opsonization)
which complement proteins are responsible for opsonization?
which complement proteins are responsible for MAC?
which complement proteins are responsible for inflammation?
what is the classic complement pathway?
antibody binding with antigen (activates C1
what is the alternative pathway?
interaction with factors B, D and P whic activates C3
what is the lectin complement pathway?
lectins binding with carbohydrates on the microbe which activates c3