Nose and Throat Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nose and Throat Exam Deck (51):
1

What should you note about nasal discharge?

color
consistency
odor
amount
timing
bilateral/unilateral?
CABCOT

2

Normal nasal discharge is

clear/colorless
thin (not viscous)
no odor
some discharge (none is not normal)

3

Bacterial infection may have what type of discharge?

green/yellow

4

classic presentation of a nasal foreign body is

unilateral, malodorous, nasal discharge

5

patency

how well you breathe through your nose
(congestion, timing, uni/bilateral)

6

associated symptoms that are typical with nasal complaints

dental pain
burning
headache
fever

7

things to observe when beginning nasal exam

swelling
deformity (bony abnormality)
erythema

8

things to palpate during nasal exam

tenderness (at joint of nasal bone and cartilage)
crepitus (cracking sound or sensation-two bones rubbing together)
warmth
any skin lesions?

9

things to observe when looking into the nasal canal

discharge
septum (midline? deviated? blood vessels visible?)
inferior turbinate (blob of pink tissue)

10

viscous discharge is called

crusting

11

kesovexplexus

most common spot of nose bleeds (area in the anterior nasal canal that is highly vasculated)

12

turbinate

filtering units in the bone
covered with rich vasculated mucosa

13

what does the maxillary sinusitis make the inferior turbinate look like?

coated in purulous fluid

14

what are you noting when palpating the maxillary and frontal sinuses?

tenderness
bony abnormalities
hard when touched (could indicated cancer)

15

transillumination can be used to diagnosis

fluid in the sinuses (should be able to see light on hard palate if sinuses are free of fluid-place the light on the cheek)

16

nasal polyps

translucent, pearly mass in the nose
sign of chronic irritation (drugs, smoking, allergies)
may originate in the nose or in the sinuses
pt presents with persistent nasal congestion

17

deviated septum

can be caused by trauma
>70% occlusion would indicate surgery
may cause hypertrophy of the turbinate on the "free" side
CC may be sleep apnea/snoring

18

nasal vestibulitis

usually bacterial staph (MRSA) infection
red bulbous tip of their nose
red just inside the nose (vestibule)

19

nasal foreign bodies may be combined with

impetigo (from scratching and breaking the skin)
-strep and staph infection

20

best way to deal with nasal foreign bodies

try to blow it out

21

new links are being made between oral health and

CV disease

22

what to note w/lip inspection

color and moisture
lumps
ulcers
cracking
scaliness

23

leukoplakia

precursor to cancer from ill-fitting dentures

24

what to note w/oral mucosa inspection

color
ulcers
white patches/red patches
nodules

25

what to note w/ gum inspection

color
caries
ulcers

26

when patient phonates, the uvula should

elevate

27

what does having the pt swallow test for?

nerve test

28

floor of mouth holds

wartons duct
mandibular salivary gland

29

asymmetry of tongue indicates

cranial nerve problem

30

steps of the mouth exam

1. evert the lip (you can or have pt do it)
2. using pen light to visualize
3. use two tongue blades
4. palpate (careful with old people-dementia and little people)

31

areas to palpate of the tongue

1. tongue
2. floor of mouth
3. buccal mucosa
4. roof of mouth
(use two fingers)

32

acute exudative tonsillitis

cryptic tonsils (surface has divites)
infection of the tonsils
erythema
common in mononucleosis

33

apthous stomatitis

cold sore on the inside of the mouth
organism is herpes virus

34

dental abscess

infection of the teeth (cavities gone wild)

35

herpes labialis

cold sores on the outside of mouth (around lips)
painful, pt may become dehydrated (painful to drink)

36

peritonsillar abscess

tonsil itself is not abscessed, it is the peritonsillar space behind the tonsil that pushes the tonsil toward the midline
CC: severe aphagia, dysphagia, look sick, high fever

37

Rendu-Osler-Weber

familial telangectasias
present all over lips, tongue, nose
-most common on oral mucosa but can present anywhere on the body

38

preauricular lymph node palpation

in front of the ear, usually reacts to infections of eye and scalp

39

posterior auricular lymph node palpation

superficial to the mastoid process, usually reacts to infections of scalp and ear

40

parotid nodes

palpable could indicate mumps, reacts to abnormality in parotid glands

41

pharyngeal nodes

responds to whats going on in the throat (tonsillitis, pharyngitis)

42

submandibular nodes and submental

along angle of the jaw/ at point of chin
respond to whats going in lower teeth of lower jaw

43

occipital nodes

reacts to what goes on in the scalp

44

anterior cervical node

in a smoking person is cancer until you prove that it's not
reacts to things in the neck or throat

45

posterior cervical nodes

react to things in neck and throat
classic finding in mononucleosis

46

supraclavicular node

classic presentation of lymphoma (one node) and also may be present in breast cancer

47

goiter

enlarged thyroid gland

48

what to include when describing masses

size
shape
consistency
mobility
position

49

the throat is separated into

anterior and posterior triangle (separated by the sternoclaudomastoid muscle

50

thyroglossal duct cyst

congenital cyst (usually asymptomatic)
may get infected

51

branchail cleft cyst

on left side of neck
usually on division line of anterior and posterior triangle

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