what is a gunstock deformity?
cubitus varus with reverse carrying angle
-usu. occurs due to a malunion fx
which ROM is mostly affected by a contracture?
what is the tennis elbow test (lateral epicondyle damage)?
pain with resisted wrist extension
what is the golfer’s elbow test (medial epicondyle damage)?
pain with resisted wrist flexion
what is tinel’s sign?
light tapping on cubital tunnel over ulnar nerve, observe for sxs in ulnar nerve distribution
what might you see with imaging and chronic lateral epicondylitis?
calcification due to inflammation
after how many injections do you get an MRI with elbow injuries?
how does the lateral epiconydlitis surgery help?
causes injury and induces healing
what do always want to ask with medial epicondyler pain?
do you have numbness and tingling?
how do you reduce nurse maid’s elbow?
passively flex to 90 degrees, place thumb over radial head placing posterior force. elbow is ext. suppinated feel click
what do you need to distinguish when you have olecranon bursitis?
aseptc vs septic
what might you see on XR with olecranon bursitis?
spur at olecranon
what is osteochondritis dissecans?
subchondral bone death forms a loose body
how does osteochondritis dissecans present?
effusion, pain at capitulum or involved area, stiffness, decrease ROM
which imaging study is dx for osteochondritis dissecans?
MRI shows hypodense bone
when would you do an EMG study for elbow problems?
when you don’t know if the problem is coming from the neck of from the elbow
what is ulnar tunnel syndrome?
compression of ulnar nerve in guyon’s canal caused by tumor, ganglion, thrombosis ulnar artery
who typically has UCL tears?
what sxs do UCL tears have?
pain over inside of elbow PLUS cubital tunnel sxs
what is special about supracondylar elbow fx?
it needs to be treated immediately b/c of vessels and nerves
when treating kids, how many xrs should you get?
what is lymphangitis?
infected lymph tracts
what is the most common cause of carpal tunnel syndrome?
when do you NOT use epinephrine?
ears, nose, fingers, toes, hose
what are the 4 cardinal signs of Kanavel?
- uniform swelling of digit
- finger flexion for comfort
- passive extension causes pain
- exquisite pain entire length of tendon
what do you do to reduce joints?
- increase deformity
- return to anatomical position
what space is commonly used for injections of the elbow?
anconeus muscle + triangle of radial head/olecranon/lateral epicondyle
what structures run through the cubital fossa?
R. artery M. nerve B. artery U. artery musculocutaneous nerve
what can Ehler’s Danlos syndrome case?
congenital posterior, bilateral elbow dislocation
what can Monteggia cause?
traumatic elbow dislocation
what can cause developmental elbow dislocations?
cerebral palsy, neurological disorders
which artery supplies the superficial palmar arch?
which artery supplies the deep palmar arch?
what is Froment sign?
tests for ulnar nerve paralysis
pt holds paper b/w thumb and index finger
if they have to use their thumb, it is positive sign
what is finkelstein test?
tests for Quervain’s tenosynovitis
positive sign is pain over 1st dorsal compartment when thumb is flexed and ulnar deviated
what is a Galeazzi fx?
fx of distal radius with dislocation of radioulnar jt
what is a colles fx?
FOOSH injury “dinner fork” from fall on extended wrist
Usu. >50 yo
what is a smith’s fx?
what is a barton’s fx?
distal radius fx with dislocation of radiocarpal joint (dislocation is more obvious than fx)
what is a bennet’s fx?
intraarticular fx of CMC jt of thumb