what is mood?
pervasive and sustained tone that is internal and colors a person’s behavior and perception
what is affect?
external manifestation of mood
what are mood disorders?
clinical conditions characterized by a loss of a sense of control and significant subjective distress
what differentiates unipolar vs bipolar?
Major depressive episodes ONLY (MDD)=unipolar
Major depressive PLUS manic episodes = bipolar
what is hypomania?
low grade mania sxs
what is cyclothymia?
low grade bipolar sxs
-lasts 2 yrs and doesn’t meet criteria for bipolar I or II
what is dysthymia?
low grade depression sxs
-long-lasting, less severe lasting 2 yrs
what is unipolar mania/pure mania?
when only manic sxs are present
what is a major depressive episode?
distinct period of depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure (must last at least 2 weeks)
-feel like they are in a fog
what is a manic episode?
distinct period of abn and persistently elevated, expansive and irritable mood (must last at least one week)
who does depression affect most?
women > men
who does mania affect most?
men > women
which gender are more rapid cyclers (4+ episodes in one year)?
what is the avg age of onset of depression?
what is avg age of onset of bipolar disorder?
what other things do ppl with mood disorders have an increased risk fo?
substance abuse, panic disorders, OCD, anxiety disorder (this can increase suicide risk)
oversupply of dopamine is a/w which disorder?
schizophrenia (also may involve glutamate)
undersupply of serotonin is a/w which disorder?
what does GABA correlate with?
anxiety and intoxication
what is the most common condition involved in the psychiatric realm?
what is bipolar 1?
characterized by mainly manic episodes or rapid daily cycling
what is bipolar 2?
characterized by mainly depressive episodes accompanied by hypomania
which substances affect dopamine levels?
which substances affect serotonin levels?
what does imbalance in norepinephrine cause?
HTN, depression (undersupply)
which substances affect norepinephrine?
what do ACh imbalances cause?
which substances affect ACh levels?
which substances affect GABA?
tranquilizers (valium, librium)
which substances affect glutamine?
what anatomical changes can stress and depression cause?
HPA axis (thyroid) and changes in brain structure
what depressive feelings are commonly a/w suicidal thoughts?
excessive feelings of worthlessness or feelings of guilt
how are mood disorders inherited?
what can often trigger depressive of bipolar episodes?
significant life stressors
what causes future episodes of MDD or bipolar to be more likely?
changes in neurotransmission functioning in the brain
what is the cognitive triad of depression?
negative views of 1. self, 2. environment, 3. future
which PDs are more likely to also be depressed?
what is a key sxs that is common in mania?
unrestrained buying sprees (large credit card debt), sexual activity, gambling, foolish business investments
what is a mixed episode?
experience mania AND depression in one day
who has higher rates of bipolar?
higher SES (socioeconomic)
where is depression more common?
what is the diathesis-stress model?
the idea that everyone is susceptible to some disorder
what is a qualifier for having an MDD recurrence?
must be 2 mo sxs free between episodes
how is bipolar coding differentiated?
by the manic episodes
what is a qualifier for having a bipolar recurrence?
must be 2 mo without a manic or hypomanic episode
what is a paradoxical suicide?
depressed pts actually commit suicide even when they are getting better