Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (36):
1

what happens to receptors when there is too much hormone?

down regulation, pulls in receptors and degrades them

2

what happens to receptors when there is too little hormone?

up regulation, make more receptors

3

what happens to receptors to desensitize them?

adds a phosphate to decrease or reduce the function

4

which hypothalamic nucleus forms ADH?

supraoptic

5

which hypothalamic nucleus forms oxytocin?

paraventricular

6

what is the neurohypophysis?

posterior pituitary gland

7

where are the "releasing hormones" made?

ventral hypothalamus

8

where is one place where hormones don't travel a long distance?

hypothalamic-pituitary system

9

what is the infundibulum?

stalk that connects hypothalamus to pituitary

10

what is significant about the pars nervosa (post. pit)?

contains axons

11

what are the two target tissues of oxytocin?

uterus (contraction during labor)
milk let down

12

what are the target tissues of ADH?

kidneys (retain water-principle cell)
sweat glands (decreases water loss)
arterioles (contracts to increase blood pressure)

13

what can cause decreases secretion of ADH?

alcohol

14

what can cause increased secretion of ADH?

diabetes insipidus

15

what is the adenohypophysis?

anterior pituitary

16

what is the precursor of the anterior pituitary?

Rathke's pouch from the oral mucosa

17

is there a direct connection between ant pit and hypothalamus?

no, releasing hormones travel through blood

18

what is the pro hormone?

pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)

19

what is POMC the precursor for?

ACTH
MSH
enkephalin and endorphin

20

which cells produce thyroid hormone?

follicular cells

21

what is present in a thyroid follicle?

colloid (contains tyrosine)

22

what is the pathway of T3/T4?

TRH - TSH - T3, T4
hypo - A. pit - thyroid gland

23

what nutrient is required to form thyroid hormone?

iodide

24

what is iodide trapping?

moving iodide across follicular cell into colloid with Na where it is trapped because it is so large

25

where is thyroglobulin formed?

follicular cell

26

where is thyroid hormone formed?

follicular cells and then transported into the blood

27

where is thyroxine binding globulin present?

in the blood

28

what does thyroglobulin do?

transports tyrosine into the follicular cell and uses iodine to form T3 and T4

29

what is the calorigenic effect?

body processes produce heat

30

which hormone does T3 have a potentiating affect on?

catecholamine

31

which receptors are up regulated by T3?

beta adenergic receptors

32

what system does thyroid hormone influence during growth and development?

nervous system

33

what is cretinism?

hypothyroidism in fetal and infant development causes developmental issues and mental retardation

34

what is weird about Grave's dz?

antibodies against TSH ramp up production of T3/T4

35

how do you treat Grave's dz?

remove or ablate thyroid and do hormone replacement for the life

36

what situation is cortisol good for?

stress situation
-increase blood glucose
-increase blood pressure
natural anti-inflammatory

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