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Medicine > Bone Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Tissue Deck (86):
1

Function of bone tissue

support
protect
movement
mineral homeostasis (Ca and P)
blood cell production (red bone marrow)
stores triglyceride (yellow bone marrow)

2

metaphysis

epiphysial plate (where diaphysis meets epiphysis)

3

medullary cavity

where yellow marrow is located (adipocyte generation)

4

embolus

a thing floating through the blood stream that shouldn't be there causes a clot (PE)
-fat embolus can occur after fraction of a long bone that contains lots of fatty tissue

5

articulate cartilage

contains hyaline cartilage
-long healing due to lack of blood flow

6

periosteum

CT surrounding bone
-outer layer has dense irregular CT
-inner osteogenic layer for growth in thickness

7

appositional growth

growth in thickness of bone

8

sharpey's fibers

think bundles of collagen that attach periosteum to underlying bone

9

endosteum

thin membrane lining medullary cavity (surrounds inner membrane)
-where bone forming cells are located

10

matrix of bone cell contains

15% water
30 % collagen
55% crystallized mineral (Calcium phosphate and crystals of hydrozyapatite)

11

hydrozyapaptite

combination of calcium phosphate and hydroxide

12

minerals contained in the bone tissue

calcium carbonate
magnesium
fluoride
potassium
sulfate

13

hardness of bone depends on

amount of mineralized salts

14

flexibility of bone depends on

amount of collagen

15

osteoclast derives from

monocyte (many come together-50)
used to reabsorb bone tissues
-primarily in endosteum

16

osteogenic cell

unspecialized stem cell derived from mesenchyme,
-daughter cells are osteoblasts
-located in periosteum, endosteum and blood vessel canals within bone

17

osteoblasts

secrete collagen and matrix
initiate process of calcification

18

osteoid

matrix of bone tissue

19

osteocyte

so named when osteoblast has matured and it maintains current environment

20

osteon

haversion systems-repeating unit of compact bone

21

lamellae

rings surrounding Haversian canal
-concentric (surrounding canal)
-outer circumferential (outer layer of whole thing)
-interstitial (in between concentric lamellae)

22

lacunae

spaces between concentric lamellae contain cell body of osteocytes

23

caniliculi

radiate in all directions from lacunae
-contain extracellular fluid

24

how do osteocytes communicate?

gap junctions

25

Volkman canals

connect central Haversian canals

26

trabeculae

found in spongy bone
consists of concentric lamellae and osteocytes in lacunae
have no central canals

27

where is spongy bone located?

interior of flat bones
short bones
irregular bones
sesamoid bones

28

what does spongy bone contain?

red bone marrow

29

which bone gets weakened first in osteoporosis

spongy bone

30

diploe

spongy bone sandwiched between layers of compact bone

31

trabeculae is organized so that it

resists stress without breaking

32

final arrangement of bone is finalized when

child is upright and walking

33

where is red bone marrow located in adults?

hip bones (pelvis)
ribs
sternum
vertebrae
proximal ends of humerus and femur

34

bone scan is read by looking at

hot and cold spots
-hot spots indicate metabolisms that absorb more tracers (cancer, healing fractures, abnormal bone growth)
-cold areas indicate decreased metabolism (weak area of bone, degenerative disease, decalcified bone, Paget's disease, rheumatoid arthritis)

35

ossification or osteogenesis

bone formation process used during infancy, childhood and adolescence throughout life and when repairing a fracture

36

intramembranous ossification

bones form within mesenchyme which is arranged in sheetlike membranes

37

endochondral

bones form within hyaline cartilage that develops from mesenchyme (replacing cartilage with bone)

38

bones that use intramembranous ossification to form are

flat bones of skull
facial bones
mandible
medial portion of clavicle
closing fontanelles of babies

39

interstitial growth

cells begin to separate from their neighbors in the example of chondrocytes

40

hyaline cartilage is laid down by

chondroblast

41

secondary ossification sites don't start working in infants until

after birth

42

in long bones, you would find hyaline cartilage

along epiphysial plates AND
at articular cartilage areas

43

perichondrium

precursor to the periosteum

44

vertical long bone growth stops at

puberty

45

zone of resting cartilage

place holder cartilage
does not play an active role in bone growth
(closest to epiphysis)

46

zone of proliferating cartilage

slightly larger chondrocytes and arranged like stacks of coins, they secrete matrix and they undergo interstitial growth

47

zone of hypertrophied cartilage

large, mature chondrocytes arranged in columns

48

zone of calcified cartilage

a few cells thick and contains dead chondrocytes that are surrounded by calcified matrix (closest to the diaphysis)

49

fractures through epiphyseal plate in childhood can result in

unequal bone lengths
(especially in lower extremities)

50

appositional growth

making bones grow thicker
creation of new osteons making periosteal cells differentiate into osteoblasts

51

at any given time how much bone mass is being remodeled?

5%

52

renewal rate of compact bone

4% per year

53

renewal rate of spongy bone

20%

54

pathological fracture

when minor trauma or nothing causes a fracture (bone tumor, osteoporosis)

55

sequence of physiological growth of babies

1, neurological
2. weight bearing (muscles)
3. standing upright

56

contour/shaping of bones influenced by

muscles

57

spasticity

rigidity in the muscle (resist passive movement)

58

inability to walk

will cause problems with bone density, correct contour of bone)

59

osteoporosis

breakdown of bone occurs faster than making new bone

60

Rickets

Vitamin D deficiency in children

61

osteomalacia

vitamin D deficiency in adults

62

excess bone tissue

bone spurs (heals mostly)

63

Paget's disease

excessive proliferation of osteoclasts (too much spongy bone compared to compact bone)
-pathologic fracture
-deformity

64

function of vitamin A in bone

stimulates osteoblasts

65

function of vitamin C in bone

synthesis of collagen

66

function of vitamin K and B12 in bone

synthesis of bone proteins

67

function of vitamin D in bone

calcium absorption in the gut

68

insulin like growth factor (IGFs)

produced by liver and bone tissue
HGH pathway (human growth hormone)-anterior pituitary

69

function of thyroid hormones in bone

affects bone growth

70

function of insulin in bone

helps build bone (anabolic)

71

function of sex hormone in bone

estrogen has protective affect in bone
puberty helps to grow bone

72

open (compound) fracture

penetrated the skin

73

greenstick fracture

torsion fracture (hair line fracture)

74

impacted (compression) fracture

pieces pushed together
common in vertebrae of old ladies

75

Pott's fracture

ankle fracture

76

Colle's fracture

wrist fracture

77

comminuted fracture

does not break through the skin, but breaks into 3 or more pieces

78

4 stages of bone fracture repair

1. a hematoma forms
2. fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3. bony callus forms
4. bone remodeling occurs

79

ORIF

open reduction internal fixation (realigns and places hardware to allow bone to heal correctly)

80

closed reduction

resetting bone without surgery

81

open reduction

resetting bone with surgery

82

osteogenic sarcoma

common in kids (lower femur or upper tibial)

83

normal serum Calcium level

9-11 mg/dl

84

high serum calcium could cause

cardiac arrest

85

low serum calcium could cause

respiratory arrest

86

places where PTH acts when it is called on by the PT

osteoclasts in bone
gut to absorb calcium from food
kidney to promote vitamin D which promotes calcium absorption from the gut

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