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Flashcards in common lab panels Deck (50):
1

CBC

(complete blood count)
-WBC
*monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils
-RBC
-Hgb ( hemoglobin)
-Hct ( hematocrit )
-RBC indices
MCV
MCH (hemoglobin)
MCHC
RDW
-platelet

2

BMP

(basic metabolic panel)
Glucose
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
CO2
Creatinine
BUN (nitrogen)
Calcium

3

Hepatic Function

ALT
ALT
Albumin
Alkaline Phosphatase
Bilirubin
GGT
Total protein
Prothrombin time

4

CMP

(comprehensive metabolic panel)
BMP +
-Albumin
-AST
-ALT
-Bilirubin
-Total protein

5

Lipid panel

Total cholesterol
HDL
LDL
Triglyceride level
VLDL

6

normal RBC levels

in peripheral venous blood
male 4.7-6.1
female 4.2-5.4
anemic (>10% below normal)

7

erythocytosis

excess RBC

8

normal hematocrit

male 42-52%
female 37-47%
critical 60%

9

normal hemoglobin

male 14-18g/dL
female 12-16 g/dL
pregnant female >11 g/dL

10

Rule of three

Hgb = 3x RBC
Hct = 3x Hgb

11

normal MCV values

80-95 normocytic
95 macrocytic

12

MCV =

(Hct x 10) / RBC

13

MCH =

Hgb/RBC (amount of Hgb per RBC)

14

MCHC=

Hgb/Hct (conc of Hgb in an RBC)

15

normal MCHC values

32-36 % normochromic
<32% hypochromic

16

RDW

indicates cell size variability
normal 11-14.5%

17

anisocytosis

elevated RDW (high variation in cell size)
may indicate sickle cell

18

poikilocytosis

abnormal shapes of cells/staining patterns

19

target cells

look like bull's eyes
-hemoglobinopathies
-thalassemia

20

burr cells

look like burrs
-uremia
-liver disease
-post splenectomy

21

spherocytes

look like spheres instead of oval
-hereditary spherocytosis
-acquired immunohemolytic anemia

22

Heinz bodies

dark spot stains along periphery of cell
-G6PD deficiency
-alpha thallasemia

23

Howell-jolly bodies

dark spot stains inside of cell
-myelodysplasia
-post splenectomy
-Sjorgen syndrome antibody

24

basophilic stippling

looks like granules of basophils
-lead poisoning

25

schistocytes (helmet cells)

look like half of a cell
-artificial valve
-disseminated intravascular coagulation
-thrombotic thromocytopenic purpura
-hemolytic uremic syndrome

26

normal reticulocyte values

0.5-2.0%

27

aplastic anemia

low retic count
marrow can't make new cells

28

low retic count may indicate

no new cell production because of lack of bone marrow response or lack of materials (Fe, folate, B12)

29

Reticulocyte index

% of total RBCs
retic % x (pts hematocrit/normal hematocrit)
>1.0 is good response

30

normal ESR

male 15mm/hr
female 20 mm/hr

31

elevated ESR indicates

chronic or acute inflammation
occult neoplasms
necrotic diseases
renal failure

32

neutrophils

granulocytes
1st responders during infections and inflammation
2-5 lobe nucleus

33

lymphocytes

agranulocytes
B and T cells work together to destroy foreign bodies

34

plasma cell

B-lymphocyte memory cell

35

eosinophils

granulocyte stains pink w/2 lobes of nucleus
present in parasitic attacks and allergic reactions

36

basophil

granulocyte stains purple
store histamine and heparin

37

monocytes

agranulocyte
present in chronic infections, chronic inflammatory disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS preleukemia) and myeloid leukemia

38

absolute neutrophil count (ANC)

<1000 indicates severe immunocompromised

39

reasons why WBC may be increased

eating, physical activity, stress
pregnancy
PM hours
newborns and infants

40

leukocytosis

increased WBC

41

leukocytosis indicates

infection
leukemic neoplasia
malignancy
trauma, stress, hemorrhage
tissue necrosis
inflammation
dehydration (hemoconcentration)
thyroid storm
steroid use

42

leukopenia indicates

drug toxicity (chemo)
bone marrow failure
overwhelming infections (body gives up)
dietary deficiency
congenital marrow aplasia
bone marrow infiltration
autoimmune disease
hypersplenism

43

what is the correct order for performing lab tests?

1. non-contrast (Xray, CT as is)
2. iodinated (thyroid test)
3. barium (common GI test)

44

what kind of test tube do you use clot blood?

red top tube

45

what kind of test tube do you use to separate serum?

tiger or green top tube (contains heparin)

46

what kind of test tube do you use to prevent clotting for CBC, PT and INR?

purple top tube (contains EDTA)

47

What kind of test do you use to prevent clotting for plasma testing?

blue top tube

48

what order do you collect blood?

1. blood cultures
2. red top
3. blue top
4. green top
5. purple

49

where is erythropoeitin manufactured?

kidney

50

what could cause the RBC count to be high?

severe dehydration

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