Joints Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints Deck (52):
1

fibrous joints

permit little to no movement
bones held tightly by fibrous CT

2

examples of fibrous joints

-sutures in skull
-syndesmoses (ligament connecting bone to bone)
-gomphosis (periodontal ligament-teeth and mandible and maxilla)
-interosseous membranes (radioulnal/tibialfibular)

3

synostosis

sutures of the skull once they have fused

4

synarthrosis

immovable joint

5

amphiarthrosis

slightly movable joint

6

diarthrosis

freely movable joint (synovial joints)

7

examples of cartilaginous joints

epiphyseal plate
symphysis
intervertebral joints

8

characteristics of cartilaginous joint

little or no movement
hyaline or fibrocartilage

9

examples of synovial joint

most joints of body

10

fibrous capsule

outside of joint capsule
made up of dense irregular CT

11

synovial membrane

interior of joint capsule

12

synovial fluid contains

nutrients, electrolytes, glucose, bathes the ends of the long bones

13

synoviocytes

cells that make synovial fluid inside the membrane

14

what is the function of the joint capsule

give the joint some stability and contains the synovial fluid

15

fibular collateral ligament (LCL)

connects femur to fibula (lateral side of knee joint)
-extracapsular

16

tibial collateral ligament (MCL)

connects femur to tibia (medial side of knee)
-extracapsular

17

anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

connects knee joint inside
-intracapsular
-rupture allows tibia to move forward

18

posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

connects knee joint inside
-intracapsular
-rupture allows tibia to move backward

19

lateral meniscus

fibrocartilage
-cushions,
-shock absorption
-give congruence

20

medial meniscus

fibrocartilage
-gives congruence

21

bursa

sac-like structures to reduce friction
-knee and shoulder, where skin and muscles rub over bone

22

tendon sheath

protects tendon at joint to reduce friction
-especially in tight joint areas

23

retinaculum

structure that retains an organ or tissue in place
-CT structure that anchors tendon sheath and tendon in place

24

enthesis

the specific site where muscle or ligament attaches to bone

25

examples of ball and socket joints

shoulder and hip
-move in three directions
-ab/adduction
-medial/lateral rotation
-extension (front and back in sagittal plane)

26

examples of hinge joints

true elbow joint (trochlea, capitulum)
phalanges (PIP, DIP)
-flex and extend in sagitall plane

27

modified hinge joint

knee joint

28

examples of pivot joint

radioulnar joint (contains anular ligament)
-"nurse maids elbow" radius moves from out of the anular ligament

29

examples of plane joints

carpal bones-glide slightly
tarsals

30

opposition

movement of the thumb

31

examples of saddle joint

thumb (carpal with trapezium)

32

example of condyloid joint

metacarpals with proximal phalange (MCP)
-flex and extend
-ab/adduction
wrist joint

33

what joints are included in the knee?

femoropatellar
tibiofemoral (lateral and medial)

34

shoulder sublux is common in

stroke patients
shoulder is not able to contract
(head of the humerus goes way down)
-treatment is a sling

35

three bones that contribute to the acetabulum

ischium
pelvis
ilium

36

os coxae

hip bone

37

what are the landmarks of the TMJ?

mandibular condyle
mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

38

what landmarks are associated with knee joint?

tibial plateau
femur condyle and patellar surface

39

what is associated with ankle?

talus
medial malleolus of tibia
and lateral malleolus of fibula
(long healing time)

40

what is the most congruent joint of the body?

ankle joint

41

osteoarthritis

begins in the hyaline cartilage
-typically older pts or highly active younger pts

42

rheumatoid arthritis

starts in the synovial fluid and eats away at hyaline

43

autoimmune disorders that have characteristics of joints

SLE
ankylosing spondylitis
gout
psoriasis (psoriatic arthritis)
polymyositis (inflammatory changes in the muscle with muscle weakness that then affects the joints)
dermatomyositis (skin rash associated with polymyositis)

44

osteophyte

bony overgrowth area associated with OA

45

osteoarthritis affects which joints of the hands?

DIP (Heberden nodes) and PIP (Bouchard nodes)

46

gout affects which joints

MTP

47

what is the hallmark of RA?

red, hot inflammation
overgrowth of synovial membrane

48

pannus

overgrowth of synovial membrane assoc with RA

49

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

50

which type of pathogen will more likely lead to an autoimmune presentation?

virus

51

two most common cytokines related to inflammation

tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
interleukens

52

rheumatoid nodules

inflammatory cells
usually on extensor surfaces

Decks in Medicine Class (146):