Endocrinology I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology I Deck (32):
1

which hormone is responsible for directly stimulating tissue growth?

IGF-1 whose secretion is stimulated by GH

2

what type of cell makes up most of the pituitary gland?

somatotroph (50%)

3

what type of cell is the least abundant in the pituitary gland?

thyrotrophs (<10%)

4

what is the most common type of hormone secreting pituitary tumor?

prolactin

5

how would you classify most pituitary tumors?

non-malignant (benign)
-non functioning (don't affect hormone levels)
-hyperfunctioning

6

what is the size of a microadenoma?

<1cm

7

what is the size of a macroadenoma?

>1cm

8

what are common signs and sxs that go along with pituitary tumors?

1. visual field defects
2. N/V
3. H/A
4. hormone specific sxs

9

what is the most common type of pituitary tumor overall?

non-functioning
micro>macro

10

what is unique about LH/FSH secreting tumors?

the hormones secreted are not effective, therefor do not produce any clinical manifestations

11

what is the most common way that microadenomas are found?

incidental finding from a scan that was taken for another reason

12

what is included in the initial pituitary work up?

1. all ant. pit. hormones
2. target organ hormones (free T4, cortisol, sex hormones, IGF-1)
3. MRI of pit and hypothalamus (w/contrast)-NOT of the WHOLE BRAIN
4. ophthalmology referral for pt with macroadenoma and field defects

13

when is surgery recommended?

1. symptomatic tumors
2. macroadenomas

14

why does reglan cause hyperprolactinemia?

it is a dopamine antagonist
-dopamine secretion inhibits prolactin release

15

what is a normal prolactin level?

>30

16

what action does GH oppose?

insulin action
is considered to be diabetogenic

17

hypogylcemia will do what to GH?

stimulate it

18

hyperglycemia will do what to GH?

suppress it

19

what are the nine I's of hypopituitarism?

invasive (*pit tumor)
infarction (*CVA)
injury (*brain trauma)
invasive
immunologic
iatrogenic (*post surgical, radiologic)
infetious
idiopathic
isolated

20

which gland is the problem in primary hypothyroidism?

thyroid gland

21

which gland is the problem in secondary hypothyroidism?

pituitary

22

how would you describe a diffuse goiter?

whole gland enlargement
-Grave's dz, Hashimotos, endemic goiter

23

how would you describe a heterogenous goiter?

multinodular goiter

24

how would you describe a solid nodule goiter?

benign nodules vs cancer?
solitary nodule

25

which thyroid tests are most commonly used?

TSH (thyrotropin)
free T4

26

why do we test for free T4?

results of a total T4 will change in connection with albumin levels

27

what could increase TBG levels?

estrogen
OCP/Pregnancy

28

when would you use thyroglobulin level test?

post thyroid cancer treatment follow up

29

when would you use calcitonin?

screening for medullary carcinoma

30

what imaging study is the best one to determine thyroid anatomy?

ultrasound
-determines size of nodule and/or if it is cystic or solid

31

what are the inactive metabolites of epi and norepi?

metanephrine
normetanephrine

32

what is the 10% rule of pheochromocytoma?

bilateral
malignant
extra adrenal
pediatric
familial

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