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Flashcards in Spine Deck (36):
1

how many bones are in the vertebral column?

33 irregular bones

2

how many IV disks are there?

23

3

what is the outer region of the IV disc called?

annulus fibrosus

4

what is the inner region of the IV disc called?

nucleus pulposus

5

how does whiplash influence Cspine?

causes it to flatten out

6

how does pregnancy influence Lspine?

makes it more exaggerated

7

what type of joints are the facets of the vertebrae?

synovial diarthrodial

8

what is the role of trabecular bone in vertebrae?

resist compressive and shear forces (anterior side is weaker)

9

what is the pars articularis?

posterior portion of the lamina located b/w the superior and inferior facets

10

what is an intrasegmental L?

binds individual or adjacent vertebrae

11

what is an intersegmental L?

binds together a number of vertebrae into a unit

12

what do the anterior and posterior longitudinal L surround?

the body of the vertebrae

13

where is the ligamentum flavum?

connects the vertebrae at the posterior aspect of the foramen

14

what is the role of the anterior long L?

prevents hyperextension
twice as strong as the posterior

15

when is the posterior long L stretched?

flexion

16

when is ligamentum flavum stretched?

flexion

17

what are relatively weak ligaments that are stretched in flexion?

interspinous L

18

what is the ligamentum nuchae?

supraspinous ligament in the cervial region
stretched in flexion

19

which would be the first ligament to fail in hyperflexion?

supraspinous L

20

where are the intertransverse L?

in between transverse processes
stretch with lateral bending

21

which type of joints are the apophyseal jts?

plane

22

which section of spine has the greatest amt of movement?

cervical

23

what type of joint is the atlantoaxial jt?

pivot joint

24

what is lumbar extension?

anterior pelvic tilt (tummy forward)

25

what is lumbar flexion?

posterior pelvic tilt (abs to the spine)

26

what happens to the trunk flexors in pregnancy?

diastasis recti abdominis gets weak and opens up

27

what is the most lateral trunk extensor?

iliocostalis

28

what is the middle trunk extensor?

longissimus

29

what is the most medial trunk extensor?

spinalis

30

which are the deepest muscles that work on individual vertebrae?

rotatores
interspinales
intertransversarii
semispinalis (cervical)
mulifidus (cervical)

31

how do you get left rotation?

contract LEFT internal oblique and RIGHT external oblique (run in the same direction)

32

how do you get right rotation?

contract RIGHT internal oblique and LEFT external oblique

33

what does the quadratus lumborum do?

hip hicker

34

where is the center of gravity?

2nd sacral vertebrae

35

how much muscle contraction is required for maintaining erect posture?

very little

36

where does optimal LOG fall?

anterior to lateral malleolus
anterior to midline of the knee (post to patella)
through the greater trochanter
anterior to sacroiliac joint
midline of trunk (posterior to axis of rotation of cervical and lumbar spine)
through the body of L5
through dens of axis
through EAM posterior to coronal suture

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