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Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (52):
1

what covering tissue has most nerves?

parietal layer

2

what kind of tissue makes up the endocardium?

simple squamous

3

where does SVC drain from?

above the diaphragm

4

where does IVC drain from?

below the diaphragm

5

where does the coronary sinus drain from?

the heart itself

6

what are the muscles in the ventricles called?

trabeculae carneae

7

what are the muscles in the atria called?

pectinate

8

what is the fibrous skeleton?

site for anchoring of cardiac muscle (base)
not electrically excitable
support for great vessels and valves

9

what is endocardial cushion defect?

cardiac muscle doesn't form properly and the fetus has mixed blood heart pumping

10

what is the purpose of the auricles of the atria?

blood reservoir

11

what is an interatrial septum?

fuses together after birth

12

what is cristae terminales?

c-shaped ridge that separates the atria

13

what is the fossa ovalis?

where the foramen ovale used to be (in between atria)

14

what is the pressure in the RV?

25 mmHg

15

what is the pressure in the RA and LA?

8 mmHg

16

what is the most common congentical defect?

ventricular septal defect (VSD)

17

how does a VSD pt present?

high pitched murmur
bad peripheral tissue perfusion
congestive heart failure (the system gets disrupted)

18

when do coronary arteries fill?

diastole
(leaflets of aortic valve cover up the coronary arteries in systole)

19

what is the biggest cerebral artery?

middle cerebral

20

what does coarctation mean?

narrowing

21

what is tetralogy of fallot?

large VSD, stenosed pulmonary valve, aorta emerges from both ventricles, right ventricle hypertrophy due to stenosed pulmonary valve

22

what is transposition of great vessels?

RV is connected to aorta and LV is connected to pulmonary trunk

23

where do coronary arteries branch off?

ascending aorta

24

where is AV node located?

above tricuspid valve in RA

25

what is the resting potential for a myocardial cell?

-90 mV

26

what inflows to myocardial cell when it plateaus?

K outflow and Ca inflow

27

what is the third phase of myocardial cells excitation?

Ca channels close and K outflow continues

28

why is the refractory period important in the heart?

you don't want the heart cells to fire at will (it lasts almost as long as the cardiac cell cycle)

29

does the SA node have a resting phase?

no, it goes to -60 and then depolarizes again

30

what type of junctions do cardiac cells have?

desmosomes and gap junctions

31

what are imbedded in the plasma membrane?

Ca ion channels

32

what is functional syncytia?

cardiac muscles contract as a unit or not at all
-gap junctions facilitate this

33

what happens when myocardial tissue is infarcted?

troponin levels rise

34

how much of the Ca comes from EC space?

20%
-opening of channels is triggered by opening of Na channels

35

what sources of energy can the heart use to produce ATP?

glucose, fatty acids and lactic acid

36

the rising phase of the action potential in the SA node is due to what?

the rapid entry of Calcium (NOT sodium)

37

where are the cardiac centers located?

medulla oblongata
(cardioacceleratory, cardioinhibitory)

38

what affect does sympathetic nervous system have on heart rate?

increase both heart rate AND contractility

39

what affect does parasympathetic nervous system have on the heart?

decreases heart rate HAS NOT IMPACT ON contractility

40

which thoracic vertebrae innervate the heart?

T1-T5

41

what does the P represent?

depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria (contraction of atria)

42

what does the QRS complex represent?

depolarization from AV node to purkinje fibers followed by ventricular contraction

43

what does the PR (PQ) interval represent?

delay between SA node and AV node

44

what does the T wave represent?

ventricular repolarization

45

what is 1st degree heart block?

prolonged PR interval

46

what can cause a large R wave?

ventricular hypertrophy

47

what does the QT interval represent?

beginning of ventricular depol through ventricular repol

48

what does the ST segment represent?

myocardial ischemia, MI would show a big ST elevation

49

how might T wave change with MI?

T wave inversion

50

what is QT syndrome?

causes a dysrhythmia when provoked by certain medications

51

what is inotropic?

having to do with contractility

52

what is chronotropic?

having to do with rate of heart beat

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