Skin, hair and nails Flashcards Preview

Medicine > Skin, hair and nails > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin, hair and nails Deck (72):
1

Vellus hair

short, fine hair

2

terminal hair

coarse, thick hair

3

eccrine sweat gland

evenly distribute sweat glands on skin

4

apocrine sweat gland

found in axillary and genital regions, stimulated by emotional stress

5

ABCDE

asymmetry, borders (irregular), color change, diameter (>6mm), elevation

6

basal cell carinoma

cancer of cells in the basal layer, most common, shiny, translucent, slow growing
scaly red to white-brownish patch
may itch or bleed

7

squamous cell carcinoma

cancer of cells on upper layer of epidermis, crusty, scaly, red, inflamed or ulcerated. Grows slowly and painlessly, but will grow rapidly after a while can spread (face, back of hands of older, fair skinned adults)

8

melanoma

cancer of the melanocytes, most lethal b/c it metastasizes easily
mixes of colors
>6mm

9

melanoma risk factors

having many moles
having a few atypical moles
red or light hair
actinic lentigenes
macular or tan spots (freckles)
heavy sun exposure
light eye or skin color
family history

10

causes of central cyanosis

advanced lung disease
heart disease
abnormal hemoglobins

11

carotenemia

excess carotene in the blood causes by carrot, sweet potato rich diet

12

what to look for when examining lesion

1. location and distribution
2. patterns and shapes
3. consistency
4. color
5. mobility (turgor)
6. exudates (what is it draining)

13

cafe-au-lait spot

more than six may indicate neurofibromatosis, irregular border macule or patch

14

tinea versicolor

fungal infection of the skin
slightly scaly macules on trunk, neck and upper arms
may be pale (dark skin) or reddish (light skin)

15

vitiligo

depigmented macules on face, hands, feet where melanocytes are destroyed
hereditary/autoimmune condition

16

cyanosis

blue coloring (hypoxia)
peripheral or central

17

erythema

red hue, increased blood flow

18

heliotrope

violaceous eruption over the eyelids

19

pityriasis rosea

reddish, oval ringworm-like lesions

20

psoriasis

silvery, scaly lesions mainly on extensor surfaces (elbow, knee)

21

atopic eczema

reddish

22

serpiginous

creeping or having a wavy border

23

annular, arciform

ring shaped

24

macule

small, flat spot up to 1.0cm (freckles)

25

patch

flat spot larger than 1.0cm (birthmark)

26

plaque

elevated lesion 1.0cm or larger (grouping of papules) (psoriasis)

27

papule

elevated lesion less than 1.0cm (chickenpox)

28

nodule

marble like lesion larger than 0.5cm that is deeper and firmer than a papule (rheumatoid nodules, dermatofibroma) "boggy" typically painful

29

wheal

irregular, transient area of localized swelling of the skin-allergic reaction (usually disappears within 24 hours)

30

vesicle

less than 1.0cm filled with fluid (herpes)

31

bulla

larger than 1.0cm filled with fluid (herpes)

32

pustule

filled with pus (indicates infection)

33

burrow

scabies (raised tunnel in the epidermis) linear

34

scale

thin flake of exfoliated epidermis

35

crust (2ndary)

dried residue of skin exudates (serum, pus or blood)

36

lichenification

palpable thickening of the epidermis

37

excoriation

scratching

38

fissure (2ndary)

linear crack (often from dryness) athletes foot

39

ulcer (2ndary)

deep loss of epidermis, bleeds and scars (bed sore)

40

lentigo

non-raised patch, caused by sun damage, typically brown

41

actinic keratosis

small, rough, raised area found on skin that has had long sun exposure (face, scalp, back of hands, chest) precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

42

seborrheic keratosis

non-cancerous wart-like growths, face, chest, shoulders, back, typically develops after 40 yrs. velvety feel

43

petechia

small, red spots, bleeding underneath the skin but outside the vessels (does not blanch) on the palate indicates strep pharyngitis

44

intertriginous

between or under skin folds

45

primary lesion

directly from an infectious process, palpable or non palpable (acne)

46

secondary lesion

stems from a primary lesion (scarring from acne)-may be caused by constant contact with primary lesion (repeated itching)

47

erosion (2ndary)

areas of skin where upper skin layer is lost (ckicken pox)

48

purpuric lesion

outside vessels (petechia, ecchymosis)

49

ecchymosis

larger than petechia >3mm, purplish, secondary to bruising, do not blanch, seen with bleeding disorders

50

telangiectasia

small dilated vessels on skin or mucous membrane. usually on the face, will blanch

51

spider angioma

usually benign can be up to 2 cm, usually on face, arms and upper trunk
assoc. with pregnancy, liver disease (can't detox estrogen)

52

spider vein

usually bluish in color, usually on legs, can accompany varicose vein

53

dermatomal

covering a band of skin that corresponds to a nerve root (herpes zoster)- must describe which dermatom

54

things to note on palpation of skin

temperature
moisture
texture
turgor (elasticity)
edema

55

asteatosis

dry skin
flaky, rough, itchy skin
(hypothyroidism)

56

variations in temperature

warm to cool = normal
warm to hot = fever/infection or hyperthyroidism
cool to cold = hypothyroidism or systemic disease

57

raynauds

disease of the blood vessels
fingers will be cold

58

alopecia areata

hair loss from an area of the body, usually scalp
demarcated round patches of hair loss
may be immune-mediated

59

trichotillomania

hair loss from pulling or plucking
anxiety, OCD
varying lengths of hair

60

tinea capitis

ringworm (fungal infection)
will see broken hairs

61

paronychia

infection of nail bed
may spread around nail bed and will be painful

62

herpetic whitlow

vesicular, contains serous fluid
infection of herpes virus

63

onycholysis

separation of nail plate from nail bed at distal margin
trauma, psoriasis, fungal infection (onychomycosis)
diabetes, hyperthyroidism

64

note when examining nails

brittle (hypothyroid)
fine vs coarse
dry vs oily

65

leukonychia

white spots
usually related to trauma

66

beau's lines

deep lines that indicate stopped cell division
related to severe illness
nail grows 1mm every 6-10 days

67

Mee's lines

white line that appears like lunula
arsenic poisoning, carbon monoxide
sometimes heart failure,

68

nail pitting

matrix like nail bed
usually with psoriasis
may also been seen in Reiters, sarcoidosis

69

clubbing

chronic, persistent hypoxia
nail looks like a club

70

Terry's nails

loss of vascularity
assoc with liver disease and CHF, DM and malnutrition
similar in appearance to Mee's lines, but ground glass appearance

71

decubitus ulcer

pressure sore or bed sore

72

cellulitis

infection in the skin, especially dermal

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