Flashcards in Hematology Day 1 Deck (53):
how large is an RBC?
when are RBCs increased?
during the day
what is the normal blood volume?
which chains does hemoglobin have?
2 alpha chains
2 beta chains
how does blood contribute to acid/base balance?
transports CO as bicarb
what is an average range of white cells?
a WBC of >10K would indicate what?
infection, dx, reactive
a WBC of <5K would indicate what?
immunodeficiency or huge infection with depleted pool
what are normal values of neutrophils?
how do neutrophils kill microorganisms?
releases toxic enzymes and phagocytisizes
what are normal values of lymphocytes?
what are normal values of monocytes?
what are normal values of eosinophils?
what is the role of eosinophils?
what are normal values of basophils?
what is the role of basophils?
inflammatory response to injury (non specific immune response)
which cells are the first line of defense in inflammatory responses?
which WBC is most responsible for viral infections?
what are the normal values of platelets?
when do you have a bleeding risk?
what is a microcytic cell?
MCV of <80
what is normal MCV?
what are the microcytic anemias?
chronic dz/infllamation or copper def.
what is spherocytosis?
no area of central pallor,
small, round shape
what is sideroblast?
iron accumulation around nucleus (in membrane, not in hemoglobin molecule)
what is the MCV for macroblastic RBC?
what are causes of macrocytic anemia?
BIG FAT RED CELLS
what are causes of normocytic anemia?
what is myelophthistic?
bone marrow gets displaced by non-blood making tissue
what is hypochromia?
reduced Hgb content
what is hyperchromia?
excess pigmentation of hemoglobin
what is poikilocytosis?
way to describe the shape of red cells
used in anemias, myelofibrosis
what does an increase in reticulocytes indicate?
-acclimating to increase altitude
-pulmonary dz with hypoxia
-all types of anemia
what will the RDW be if retic count is high?
elevated (retics are larger than RBC)
what is anemia of chronic dz?
overall the body is not functioning correctly and is not producing RBCs the way it is supposed to
what is the definition of anemia?
reduction in mass of circulating RBC
what are the factors that influence anemias?
what bone marrow disorders impact RBC production?
what things caused bone marrow suppression?
what endocrine problems impact RBC production?
kidney dz (dec. epo)
how do angrogens impact RBC production?
what are inherited hemolytic anemias?
what are acquired hemolytic anemias?
what is a common source of blood loss?
what are sxs of anemai?
CP or angina
bounding pulses, roaring in ears
HF (chronic low volumes where the heart out)
PICA (crave ice?)
How do you approach anemia?
1. assess MCV
2. ethnic background
3. UTD with GI eval, gyn eval
what do you note on PE when eval anemai?
bone tenderness (aplastic anema/leukemia)
petechiae or ecchymosis
sx of bleeding
what environment does iron need to be absorbed?
acidic (need to decrease pH, in order to get optimal absorption)
what does the ferritin level tell you?
iron stores over time
what is the desire to eat dirt?
what is the desire to eat paper/starch?
what happens during acute blood loss?
extravascular fluid moves the intravascular space and the RBCs become diluted which leads to anemia