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Flashcards in Hematology Day 1 Deck (53):
1

how large is an RBC?

7.7 um

2

when are RBCs increased?

infants,
during the day
activity
temperature
altitude

3

what is the normal blood volume?

5L

4

which chains does hemoglobin have?

2 alpha chains
2 beta chains

5

how does blood contribute to acid/base balance?

transports CO as bicarb

6

what is an average range of white cells?

5-10K

7

a WBC of >10K would indicate what?

infection, dx, reactive

8

a WBC of <5K would indicate what?

immunodeficiency or huge infection with depleted pool

9

what are normal values of neutrophils?

55-70%
2500-8000 ANC

10

how do neutrophils kill microorganisms?

releases toxic enzymes and phagocytisizes

11

what are normal values of lymphocytes?

20-30%, 1000-4000

12

what are normal values of monocytes?

2-8%, 100-700

13

what are normal values of eosinophils?

1-3%
50-5000

14

what is the role of eosinophils?

parasite invasions
allergic rxns

15

what are normal values of basophils?

<1%, 25-100

16

what is the role of basophils?

histamines
inflammatory response to injury (non specific immune response)

17

which cells are the first line of defense in inflammatory responses?

monocytes

18

which WBC is most responsible for viral infections?

lymphocytes

19

what are the normal values of platelets?

130K-400K

20

when do you have a bleeding risk?

20K

21

what is a microcytic cell?

MCV of <80

22

what is normal MCV?

80-96

23

what are the microcytic anemias?

TICS
thalassemia
Iron deficiency
chronic dz/infllamation or copper def.
spherocytosis/siderblastic/dec. synthesis

24

what is spherocytosis?

no area of central pallor,
small, round shape

25

what is sideroblast?

iron accumulation around nucleus (in membrane, not in hemoglobin molecule)

26

what is the MCV for macroblastic RBC?

>100

27

what are causes of macrocytic anemia?

BIG FAT RED CELLS

28

what are causes of normocytic anemia?

NORMAL SIZE

29

what is myelophthistic?

bone marrow gets displaced by non-blood making tissue

30

what is hypochromia?

reduced Hgb content

31

what is hyperchromia?

excess pigmentation of hemoglobin

32

what is poikilocytosis?

way to describe the shape of red cells
used in anemias, myelofibrosis

33

what does an increase in reticulocytes indicate?

active erythropoeisis,
-posthemorrhage
-acclimating to increase altitude
-pulmonary dz with hypoxia
-all types of anemia

34

what will the RDW be if retic count is high?

elevated (retics are larger than RBC)

35

what is anemia of chronic dz?

overall the body is not functioning correctly and is not producing RBCs the way it is supposed to

36

what is the definition of anemia?

reduction in mass of circulating RBC

37

what are the factors that influence anemias?

1. production
2. destruction
3. loss

38

what bone marrow disorders impact RBC production?

aplastic anemia
MDS
tumor infiltration

39

what things caused bone marrow suppression?

Meds (alopurinol)
Radiation
Chemo

40

what endocrine problems impact RBC production?

kidney dz (dec. epo)
hypothyroid
hypogonadism

41

how do angrogens impact RBC production?

increase

42

what are inherited hemolytic anemias?

hereditary spherocytosis
sickle cell
thal major

43

what are acquired hemolytic anemias?

Coombs positive
AI
TTP-HUS
malaria
meds

44

what is a common source of blood loss?

GI...think GI!

45

what are sxs of anemai?

SOB
CP or angina
fatigue
bounding pulses, roaring in ears
confusion
HF (chronic low volumes where the heart out)
PICA (crave ice?)
syncope
shock/death

46

How do you approach anemia?

1. assess MCV
2. ethnic background
3. UTD with GI eval, gyn eval

47

what do you note on PE when eval anemai?

pallor
jaundice
lymphadenopathy
hepatosplenomegaly
bone tenderness (aplastic anema/leukemia)
petechiae or ecchymosis
sx of bleeding
stool/DRE

48

what environment does iron need to be absorbed?

acidic (need to decrease pH, in order to get optimal absorption)

49

what does the ferritin level tell you?

iron stores over time

50

what is the desire to eat dirt?

geophagia

51

what is the desire to eat paper/starch?

amylophagia

52

what happens during acute blood loss?

extravascular fluid moves the intravascular space and the RBCs become diluted which leads to anemia

53

where is iron stored?

liver, spleen, marrow

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