what is the true ankle joint?
tibia, fibula articulating with talus
what is the function of the ankle joint?
used as a lever for push off during gait
conforms to changing terrain
what are the movements of the talocrural joint?
1 degree of freedom
what is a term used to describe the ankle joint?
mortice (carpentry term)-gripper
what is the most congruent joint of the body?
where does the proximal tibiofibular joint contribute?
-small amount of sliding
what ligaments are at the distal tibiofibular joint?
anterior/posterior tibiofibular ligaments
crural tibiofibular ligament (strongest ligament)
where is the talus articular surface wider?
what holds the ankle joint so strongly?
where is the deltoid ligament?
medial aspect of the ankle
stronger than the lateral collateral
what will happen before ligaments tear at the ankle?
bones will break
what are the bands at the lateral aspect of the ankle?
anterior tf (weakest)
post. tf (strongest)
which malleolus is more distal?
what muscles are responsible for dorsiflexion?
extensor hallicus longus
what muscles are responsible for plantar flexion?
tibialis posterior (also inversion)
when you pass out, you will always fall…
center of gravity passes in the front of the ankle
what is the susentaculum tali?
bony prominence of calcaneus where things link to
what is the tarsal canal?
bony tunnel b/w post articular surface of calcaneus and the ant and medial articulation
what runs through the tarsal canal?
what ligaments are present at the subtalar joint?
interosseous talocalcaneal L
Med and lat collateral L
Post and lat talocalcaneal L
what is the role of the subtalar jt?
connect the leg and the foot
absorb rotational motion of the leg
what is the TCN joint?
what is the spring ligament?
plantar calcaneonavicular L
triangle shape that runs along subtalar joint and inserts of the inferior portion of the navicular
where does TRUE plantar and dorsiflexion occur?
true ankle joint
where does in/eversion occur?
subtalar, TCN joints
where is the transverse tarsal joint?
compound joint formed by the talonavicular jt and the calcaneocuboid
divides hindfoot from the midfoot
which foot bones are immobile during weight bearing?
(all other bones move around them)
what is the long plantar ligament?
from calcaneus and cuboid (inferiorly)
to the base of MT 2,3,4
contributes to stability of the transverse jt
which joints are in the midfoot region?
what kind of joints are the TMTs?
where do you experience plantar fasciitis?
where is the foot arch highest?
which tissues maintain longitudinal foot arches?
long plantar L
short plantar L
which bone is the keystone of the transverse arch of the foot?
how can you isolate the soleus?
flex the knee, then plantar flex
what is the O/I of gastroc?
O: condyles of the femur
I: achilles tendon onto calcaneus
what is the O/I of soleus?
O; from tibia and fibula
I; achilles tendon into calcaneus
what can gastroc and soleus also cause?
what is the O/I of tibialis anterior?
O: proximal tibia and interosseus membrane
I: 1st MT and medial cunieform
what is the O/I of extensor hallucis longus?
O: anterior fibula and interosseus
I: great toe
what is the O/I of the extensor digitorum longus?
O: upper tibia and fibula
I: phalanx of toes 2-5
what is the O/I of the fibularis longus?
O: fibula and tibial condyle
I: MT 1 and medial cuneiform (wraps around inferiorly)
what is the O/I of the fibularis brevis?
O: mid fibula
I: MT V
what do the fibularis muscles do?
evert the ankle
what is the O/I of the posterior tibialis?
O: tibia, fibula, interosseus
I: MT 2-5
what is the role of the posterior tibialis?
plantar flex invert foot (strongest)
what does the deep peroneal nerve innervate?
extensor digitorum longus
extensor digitorum brevis
extensor hallucis longus
what does the superficial peroneal nerve innervate?
what does the tibial nerve innervate?
what does the medial plantar nervve innervate?
flexor digitorum brevis
flexor hallucis brevis
what does the lateral plantar nerve innervate?
intrinsic foot muscles