Pharmacology Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Lecture 1 Deck (32):
1

what factors affect Fick's law of diffusion?

area and thickness of membrane

2

what is a weak acid drug?

neutral -> protonated + H+

3

what is a weak base drug?

protonated -> neutral + H+

4

what form of a weak acid or base is the lipid soluble form?

unprotonated (neutral form)

5

which form of drug can easily diffuse through the kidney tubule?

lipid soluble (unprotonated)

6

how would you adjust urine pH to excrete a weak base drug?

make it more acidic (moves drug to the protonated form and can't pass through tubule)

7

how would you adjust urine pH to excrete a weak acid drug?

make it more basic (moves drug to the protonated form and can't pass through tubule)

8

what is a chemical antagonist?

when one drug binds with another drug in the blood stream thereby prohibiting action of either drug

9

what is a physiologic antagonist?

when an antagonist acts on a different receptor but opposes another pathway

10

what are pharmacokinetics?

absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a drug
(what the body does to the drug)

11

what are pharmacodynamics?

non-receptor or receptor mechanisms
(what the drug does to the body)

12

what is an additive affect?

when two drugs have to work together to make an effect?
2+2 = 4

13

what is synergistic?

when two drugs working together make a better effect
2 + 2 = 4 + 4

14

what is potentiation?

when one drug improves the performance of another drug
2+ 2 = 4 + 2

15

in the case of a contraindication you would...

never ever ever give the drug

16

what do agonists have that antagonists do not?

intrinsic activity
-they only have affinity

17

what kind of bond does a competitive irreversible antagonist form?

covalent

18

what is the weakest type of bond?

van der waals

19

what process determines time of activity of G-protein?

hydrolysation of G protein from GTP to GDP diphosphate

20

what is tachyphylaxis?

rapid desensitization
loss of receptor function

21

what is down regulation?

receptors are removed and sequestered from the cell surface
loss of # of receptors

22

what are the three non-receptor mediated desensitizations?

1. reduction of coupling responses
2. increased metabolic degradation
3. opposing homeostatic response

23

what is constitutive activity?

receptor is not bound by a ligand but is causing an affect

24

what is an inverse agonist?

binding to the receptor site causes the constitutive activity to shut off
-it is an agonist because it is doing the activity of turning the activity off

25

what is Kd?

dissociation equilibrium , # of ligands going on = # of ligands dissociating

26

what is the relationship between affinity and Kd and concentration of drug?

inc. affinity = dec Kd and dec of drug concentration

27

which way does potency shift on a graph?

to the left

28

how do you calculate therapeutic index?

Toxic ED (TD50) / Beneficial ED50

29

many spare receptors will do what to the amount of drug needed?

decrease

30

which class of receptors is the fastest?

ligand gated ion channel

31

which class of receptors is the longest?

ligand activated transcription factors

32

which class of receptors is the most common and most complex?

G coupled protein

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