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Flashcards in Eye Deck (32):
1

cycloplegic drugs do what?

impair eyes ability to contract the ciliary body
-impairs close vision

2

what does a sympathomimetic do?

decrease aqueous secretion

3

what does a beta adrenergic blocking agent do?

decrease aqueous secretion

4

what should you never do with topical anesthetics?

prescribe for home use
-pts lose sense of pain

5

when would you use topical corticosteroids?

rarely, if ever
-too many potential side effects
-NEVER if suspicious of HSV infection

6

what are the drawbacks of ointments?

can be messy
can cause visual blurring

7

what should always be in your ocular differential?

drugs that they are on that have side effects

8

what are drawbacks of contact lenses?

increase risk of infection and corneal ulceration

9

what are two key questions when it comes to vision loss?

1. did this occur suddenly or over time?
2. painful or painless?

10

what can cause diplopia?

ocular misalignment

11

what is the DDx for diplopia?

CN palsy
Grave's dz

12

what is the DDx for spots and flashing lights?

benign vitreous floaters
posterior vitreous detachment
vitreous hemorrhage
uveitis
retinal tear or detachment
differentiate from migrain scotoma

13

#1 cause of blindness WW?

cataracts

14

#1 cause of blindness US?

diabetic neuropathy

15

#1 cause of blindness US elderly?

macular degeneration

16

what are other causes of blindness?

retinal detachment
central retinal arterial occlusions

17

what is the most common cause of infectious blindness world wide?

trachoma (chlamydia)
-causes inflammation and scarring of the lids

18

what is the ddx for ptosis?

horner's
CN III palsy
myasthenia gravis
age related

19

what are the symptoms of horner's?

ptosis
anhydrosis
miosis

20

what is the ddx for proptosis?

graves dz (bilateral)
orbital cellulitis (usu. unilateral)
retrobulbar tumor (usu. unilateral)

21

what causes proptosis in graves?

mucopolysaccharide/inflammatory cell deposits in the periorbital tissues
-usu. occurs when the pts in hyperthyroid but it can happen before or after
-worsened by smoking and RAI tx.
should always do hertel exopthalmometry

22

what is afferent pupillary defect?

marcus gunn pupil
-eye does not dilate with direct response but does with indirect response
-retina is not picking up the direct light
-testing with swinging light test

23

what is the best way to prevent diabetic retinopathy?

good glycemic control

24

what is the #1 cause of new blindness in the US?

diabetic retinopathy

25

when should a type 1 diabetic get the first eye exam?

by 5th year of dx
annually thereafter

26

when should a type 2 diabetic get the first eye exam?

ASAP after dx
annually thereafter

27

what is the txment for diabetic retinopathy?

panretinal photocoagulation
-burning off lesions, stop leakage of blood vessels

28

what are the ocular side effects of rifampin?

orange tears

29

what are the ocular side effects of corticosteroids?

1. ocular dryness
2. cataract
3. 2a infection
4. glaucoma

30

what are the ocular side effects of PDE inhibitors? (Viagrao)

color changes

31

what are the ocular side effects of antihistamines?

ocular dryness

32

what are the ocular side effects of anticholinergics?

ocular dryness
glaucoma

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