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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (53)
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1

what is a major cation in the extracellular space?

sodium (test question)

2

hyponutremia

low sodium

3

what does sodium content indicate?

balance between dietary sodium intake and renal excretion

4

when do you lose sodium?

when you sweat

5

what are critical sodium values?

<160

6

what does aldosterone do?

retains sodium (reabsorbs)-distal tubule, excretes potassium

7

water follows what?

sodium

8

who is best buds with sodium?

chloride

9

what does ADH do?

released from posterior pituitary
holds water in
-alcohol inhibits ADH

10

when will ADH be released?

increased osmotic gradient
decreased vasopressure

11

what is the recommended Na intake?

1500mg/day (test question)

12

fatigue, confusion, muscle twitches and death are symptoms for what?

hypernatremia

13

nausea, seizures, coma and death are symptoms for what?

hyponatremia

14

what type of tube will sodium serum be drawn into?

red or green

15

what is the major intracellular cation?

potassium

16

what are critical K values?

6.5

17

what foods contain potassium?

tomatoes, potatoes, bananas

18

what controls K levels?

aldosterone (increase renal loss of potassium)

19

how does acid base balance influence serum potassium?

in alkalosis = K goes in, hydrogen goes out (makes serum more acidotic)
in acidosis = K goes out and H goes in (makes serum more alkalotic)

20

how is serum K collected?

red or green top

21

weakness, paralysis, hyporeflexia, ileus and cardiac dysarhythmia are symptoms of what?

hypokalemia

22

irritiability, nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic and diarrhea are symptoms of what?

hyperkalemia

23

what is the major extracellular anion?

chloride (follows sodium)

24

how does chloride compensate for acid/base imbalance?

chloride goes in while bicarb comes out (makes serum alkalotic)
chlorides goes out while bicarb comes in (makes serum acidotic)

25

what top tube do you draw chloride in?

red or green

26

hyperchloridemia

increase serum chloride

27

when sodium levels are off, what's the problem?

water, water, water

28

where does venous bicarb level come from?

CO2
breakdown of carbonic acid gives CO2 and bicarb
total CO2 is in the veins

29

what are critical values of bicarb?

<6
normal is 23-30

30

how do you collect bicarb?

red or green top

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