Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (53)
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1
Q

what is a major cation in the extracellular space?

A

sodium (test question)

2
Q

hyponutremia

A

low sodium

3
Q

what does sodium content indicate?

A

balance between dietary sodium intake and renal excretion

4
Q

when do you lose sodium?

A

when you sweat

5
Q

what are critical sodium values?

A

<160

6
Q

what does aldosterone do?

A

retains sodium (reabsorbs)-distal tubule, excretes potassium

7
Q

water follows what?

A

sodium

8
Q

who is best buds with sodium?

A

chloride

9
Q

what does ADH do?

A

released from posterior pituitary
holds water in
-alcohol inhibits ADH

10
Q

when will ADH be released?

A

increased osmotic gradient

decreased vasopressure

11
Q

what is the recommended Na intake?

A

1500mg/day (test question)

12
Q

fatigue, confusion, muscle twitches and death are symptoms for what?

A

hypernatremia

13
Q

nausea, seizures, coma and death are symptoms for what?

A

hyponatremia

14
Q

what type of tube will sodium serum be drawn into?

A

red or green

15
Q

what is the major intracellular cation?

A

potassium

16
Q

what are critical K values?

A

6.5

17
Q

what foods contain potassium?

A

tomatoes, potatoes, bananas

18
Q

what controls K levels?

A

aldosterone (increase renal loss of potassium)

19
Q

how does acid base balance influence serum potassium?

A

in alkalosis = K goes in, hydrogen goes out (makes serum more acidotic)
in acidosis = K goes out and H goes in (makes serum more alkalotic)

20
Q

how is serum K collected?

A

red or green top

21
Q

weakness, paralysis, hyporeflexia, ileus and cardiac dysarhythmia are symptoms of what?

A

hypokalemia

22
Q

irritiability, nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic and diarrhea are symptoms of what?

A

hyperkalemia

23
Q

what is the major extracellular anion?

A

chloride (follows sodium)

24
Q

how does chloride compensate for acid/base imbalance?

A

chloride goes in while bicarb comes out (makes serum alkalotic)
chlorides goes out while bicarb comes in (makes serum acidotic)

25
Q

what top tube do you draw chloride in?

A

red or green

26
Q

hyperchloridemia

A

increase serum chloride

27
Q

when sodium levels are off, what’s the problem?

A

water, water, water

28
Q

where does venous bicarb level come from?

A

CO2
breakdown of carbonic acid gives CO2 and bicarb
total CO2 is in the veins

29
Q

what are critical values of bicarb?

A

<6

normal is 23-30

30
Q

how do you collect bicarb?

A

red or green top

31
Q

when do you stop making bone?

A

30 yo

32
Q

what do you need to absorb calcium?

A

vitamin D

33
Q

how does PTH work?

A

triggered by low Ca serum

  1. absorb Ca from GI
  2. absorb Ca from kidneys
  3. resorb Ca from bone (break down bone)
34
Q

which type of calcium is “active”

A

ionized Ca (free)

35
Q

which type of calcium is “bound”

A

bound to protein

36
Q

how do you correct the total calcium level?

A

0.8 ( 4.0-serum albumin) + total calcium

= corrected calcium

37
Q

what do you have to do if you want to know the ionized Ca?

A

order an ionized Ca test

38
Q

what are the most common causes of hypercalcemia?

A
  1. hyperparathyroidism
  2. cancer
  3. excessive vitamin D intake
39
Q

anorexia, N/V, somnolence, confusion and constipation are symptoms of what?

A

hypercalcemia

40
Q

nervousness, tetany and excitability are symptoms of what/

A

hypocalcemia

41
Q

who is buddies with calcium?

A

phosphorus

42
Q

when phosphorus is normally high,

A

calcium is usually low

43
Q

what happens when phosphorus gets low?

A

they don’t breathe (need atp)

44
Q

where is phosphorus absorbed?

A

in small bowel

45
Q

what do kidneys do with phosphorus?

A

excrete (when they fail, phosphorus levels go up)

46
Q

why is calcium low in kidney failure?

A

you don’t have active vitamin D

47
Q

what is critical value of phosphorus?

A

<1 mg/dl

48
Q

what tube is used to collect phosphorus?

A

red top

49
Q

where is phosphorus stored?

A

intracellular

50
Q

how does antacid work to decrease phosphorus?

A

binds with phosphorus in food and is excreted through GI

51
Q

where is magnesium found in the body?

A

intracellularly

52
Q

how is magnesium removed from the body?

A

kidneys

53
Q

which tube is magnesium collected in?

A

red or green top

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