Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (53):
1

what is a major cation in the extracellular space?

sodium (test question)

2

hyponutremia

low sodium

3

what does sodium content indicate?

balance between dietary sodium intake and renal excretion

4

when do you lose sodium?

when you sweat

5

what are critical sodium values?

<160

6

what does aldosterone do?

retains sodium (reabsorbs)-distal tubule, excretes potassium

7

water follows what?

sodium

8

who is best buds with sodium?

chloride

9

what does ADH do?

released from posterior pituitary
holds water in
-alcohol inhibits ADH

10

when will ADH be released?

increased osmotic gradient
decreased vasopressure

11

what is the recommended Na intake?

1500mg/day (test question)

12

fatigue, confusion, muscle twitches and death are symptoms for what?

hypernatremia

13

nausea, seizures, coma and death are symptoms for what?

hyponatremia

14

what type of tube will sodium serum be drawn into?

red or green

15

what is the major intracellular cation?

potassium

16

what are critical K values?

6.5

17

what foods contain potassium?

tomatoes, potatoes, bananas

18

what controls K levels?

aldosterone (increase renal loss of potassium)

19

how does acid base balance influence serum potassium?

in alkalosis = K goes in, hydrogen goes out (makes serum more acidotic)
in acidosis = K goes out and H goes in (makes serum more alkalotic)

20

how is serum K collected?

red or green top

21

weakness, paralysis, hyporeflexia, ileus and cardiac dysarhythmia are symptoms of what?

hypokalemia

22

irritiability, nausea, vomiting, intestinal colic and diarrhea are symptoms of what?

hyperkalemia

23

what is the major extracellular anion?

chloride (follows sodium)

24

how does chloride compensate for acid/base imbalance?

chloride goes in while bicarb comes out (makes serum alkalotic)
chlorides goes out while bicarb comes in (makes serum acidotic)

25

what top tube do you draw chloride in?

red or green

26

hyperchloridemia

increase serum chloride

27

when sodium levels are off, what's the problem?

water, water, water

28

where does venous bicarb level come from?

CO2
breakdown of carbonic acid gives CO2 and bicarb
total CO2 is in the veins

29

what are critical values of bicarb?

<6
normal is 23-30

30

how do you collect bicarb?

red or green top

31

when do you stop making bone?

30 yo

32

what do you need to absorb calcium?

vitamin D

33

how does PTH work?

triggered by low Ca serum
1. absorb Ca from GI
2. absorb Ca from kidneys
3. resorb Ca from bone (break down bone)

34

which type of calcium is "active"

ionized Ca (free)

35

which type of calcium is "bound"

bound to protein

36

how do you correct the total calcium level?

0.8 ( 4.0-serum albumin) + total calcium
= corrected calcium

37

what do you have to do if you want to know the ionized Ca?

order an ionized Ca test

38

what are the most common causes of hypercalcemia?

1. hyperparathyroidism
2. cancer
3. excessive vitamin D intake

39

anorexia, N/V, somnolence, confusion and constipation are symptoms of what?

hypercalcemia

40

nervousness, tetany and excitability are symptoms of what/

hypocalcemia

41

who is buddies with calcium?

phosphorus

42

when phosphorus is normally high,

calcium is usually low

43

what happens when phosphorus gets low?

they don't breathe (need atp)

44

where is phosphorus absorbed?

in small bowel

45

what do kidneys do with phosphorus?

excrete (when they fail, phosphorus levels go up)

46

why is calcium low in kidney failure?

you don't have active vitamin D

47

what is critical value of phosphorus?

<1 mg/dl

48

what tube is used to collect phosphorus?

red top

49

where is phosphorus stored?

intracellular

50

how does antacid work to decrease phosphorus?

binds with phosphorus in food and is excreted through GI

51

where is magnesium found in the body?

intracellularly

52

how is magnesium removed from the body?

kidneys

53

which tube is magnesium collected in?

red or green top

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