fluid-electrolyte physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in fluid-electrolyte physiology Deck (31):
1

4 ways to measure protein in urine

1. single urine [prot]
2. 24 hour clleciton
3. single urine protein/cr ratio
4. sinle urine albumin/Cr ratio

2

what is urine [prot}

amount of protein in urine/urine vol.

3

what is prob with measuring [prot.]

depends on dilution of urine

4

what is adv. of 24hr collection

not dependant on fluid levels

5

what is large amount of protenuria

>3.5g per day

6

what is a backup measure to assess [prot.]

also measure Cr and see if theres is a difference in the ratio

7

what is path through the tubule

PCT>DLOH>ALOH>DCT>CCD>MCD

8

why is so much water filtered if need to reabsorb

need to filter out all the dirty garbage

9

how is Na taken out of tubule

Na/K ATPase take Na out of epithelium and this then diffiuses into epithelium from tubule

10

3 main functions of proximal tubule

1. bulk reabsorb of Na (80%)
2. reabsorb other filtered "desirables" (H2O, Cl, glucose)
3. acid base balance (reabsorb HCO3-

11

how is glucose reabsorbed with Na?

1. from tubule into epi cell via SGLT transported
2. from cell to cap. via GLUT2 transporter

12

how is urea reabsorbed

as small [urea] becomes greater because Na and H2O are being reabsorbed there created a [c] gradient and the urea is reabsorbed too

13

what is special about asc. LOH

water impermiable

14

what does ALOH do?

reabsorbed Na (10%)

15

how is Na reabsorbed in ALOH

1. Na/K ATPase pull Na into cap
2. Na,K,2Cl trasnporter pushes K back into tubule
3. high [K] creates a potential that pushes other cations back into cap

16

what is consequence of ALOH action

low Na at end and so fluid is dilute

17

3 functions of DCT

1. reabsorbes NaCl (5%)
2. impermeable to water
3. reabsorb Ca (via PTH)

18

3 functions of Cort col duct

1. reabsorb Na (1-5%)
2. secrete K and H
3. reabsorb lots of H2O if ADH present

19

how is H2O reabsorbed in CCT

1. Aldost. bind to cystolic receptor
2. enters nucleus and transcription changes
3. new proteins
4. inserts NaC channel in tubule wall
5. Na comes into cell
6. -ve charge left behind in tubule
7. push out K and H into tubule (urine) via charge

20

what does MCT do?

1. water in if has ADH
2. small Na reabsorb

21

how does ADH work

1. ADH binds to receptor on cell wall and uses cAMP messenger system to put aquaporin in tubule side of cell
2. water comes into cell and into cap.

22

where is K absorbed

PCT - 65-70%
LOH - 30%
CCD - some can be excreted

23

where is Ca absorbed

PCT - 65%
LOH - 25-30%
DCT - 5-10%

24

what happens to glucose

1. filtered by glom
2. reabsorbed by PCT

25

what are consequences of excess excretion of NA, K, H2O and H

Na- hypovolemia
K - hypokalemia
H20 - Hypernatrmia
H - metabolc alkalosis

26

what are consequences of too little excretion of NA, K, H2O and H

Na- edema, hypertension
K - hyperkalemia
H20 - hyponatremia
H - metabolc acidosis

27

what are 2 functions of bladder?

1. storage
2. voiding

28

2 things that happen for bladder storage

1. detrusor relaxes
2. sphincters contract

29

3 things that happen for voiding

1. bladder fills and sends signal
2. detrusor contracts
3. sphincters contract

30

2 voiding probems

1. retention
2. incontinence

31

2 issues that ifluence bladder problems

1. too little/much detrusor
2. too little/much sphincter

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