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Flashcards in K disorderss Deck (17):
1

3 causes of hypokalemia

1. decreased intake
2. shift into cells
3. excess loss
- renal or GI

2

main cause of K into cells (2)

1. insulin into cels
2. B2 agon

3

main causes of renal K loss

1. diuretics
-high aldo (RAAS) and high flow to CCD
2. renal tubular disease
3. ecess glucocort.
4. Mg def

4

3 interactions between aldo and K

1. aldo stim leads to instertion of eNaC
2. Na reabsorbed faster than Cl
3. K out due to elect. greadtient

5

3 reasons for hypokalemia in diuretics

1. high aldo
- diuretics cause low ECF
- increases renin
2. increased flow to collection duct
3. combo increases urine K loss

6

7 clinical signs of low K

1. weakness
2. arrthymias
3. low deep tendon reflexes
4. paralytic ileus
5. polyuria and dipsia
6. N/V

7

mgmt of low K

acute
- oral (preferred) or IV (if severe) Kcl
chronic
- high K foods
- K sparing diuretics

8

3 causes of hyperkalemia

1. increased intake
2. shift out of cells
3. failure of renal excretion

9

3 causes of hyperkalemia

1. increased intake
2. shift out of cells
3. failure of renal excretion

10

3 reasons K comes out of cells

1. (acidosis) insulin def. - DKA, hyperglycemia
2. muscle necrosis- rhabdo
3. hemolysis - GI bleeds
4. rapid admin of B-blocker

11

2 reasons for low K excretion

1. low flow to CCD - low gfr, low ECFV
2. low aldo
-adrenal disease
- ACEi, ARB
- k-sparing diuretics

12

signs of hyperkalemia

1. muscle weakness
- low reflexes
- resp failure
2. ECG chnages
3. arrythmias
K>7 is life threatening

13

2 ways diabtes and hyperkalemia are related

1. insulin def.
2. reduced Kidney excretion

14

***4 princinples to manage hyperkalemia

1. stabilize myocardium
2. shift K into cells
3. excrete K
4. dyalise

15

how to stabilize the myocardium

- give calcium gluconate
- helps antagonize the membrane action of hyper kalemia

16

how to shift K into cells

IV insulin or B2 agon

17

3 ways to help excrete K

1. renal
- IV saline and the furosomide
2. GI
- laxative
NOT in post-op ileus
3. dialysis

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