Epi modules 1,2,3,5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epi modules 1,2,3,5 Deck (32):
1

def. of epi

study of things that occur to the populaiton

2

3 types of epi

1. descriptive
2. analystical
3. clinical

3

def. of descriptive epi

what are health problems, who is effected

4

what is asked in analytical epi

what are the causes and mechanisms

5

what is asked in clin-epi

is this treatment better than others, for who?

6

5 things that can be understood with epi

1. etiology of disease
2. who is at risk
3. history and progression
4. effectiveness of interventions
5. health programs and policies

7

define epidemic

more cases exist than would have been expected

8

define pandemic

cases go global

9

what 2 things must be defined in epi

1. health outcomes
2. define and describe population

10

what is iceberg phenomenon

only see a small portion of the people with the disease

11

define count

number of specific cases

12

define proportion

numerator (count) to the denominator (population)

13

define ratio

same numerator and denominator, but may be unrelated to each other

14

define rate

time restricted proportion

15

3 ways epi describes outcomes

1. time - rate of disease over time
2. place - geographic distribution of measure
3. person - characterisitic of those affected

16

2 common types of rates

1. age specific
2. cause specific

17

def. of mortality vs. morbidity

1. rate of death (numerator) to defined pop
1. rate of cases (numerator) to defined pop

18

def of proportionate mortality rate

rate of death to specific cause/rate of death of all causes x100

19

def of case fatality rate

number of death for specific disease/number of people with disease

20

what is age adjusted rate

statistical process applied to remove the effects of age

21

what are standard mortality ratios

another way of adjusting for age in small populations

22

what is formula for standard mortality ratios

observed deaths/expected deaths (for standard population)

23

what is potential years of life lost calculation

measure that gives additional weight to death in younger people

24

what is calculation for PYLL

75-age

25

what is PYLL rate?

(sum of PYLL/total pop under 75)*1000

26

def. of measures of association

comparison of exposure and various outcomes

27

3 measures of association

1. relative risk
2. odds ratios
3. attributable risk

28

def. of relative risk

incidence rate of those exposed/incidence rate of those not exposed

29

what does relative risk of 1.4 mean

40% increased chance of something occuring

30

what is odd ratio?

(ill/not-ill for exposed)/(ill/not-ill for not exposed)

31

what is odd ratio useful

when very low rates, will over inflate if high

32

define attributable risk

incidence in exposed group-incidence in unexposed

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