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Flashcards in pediatric cardio Deck (25):
1

3 things age-dependant problem based approach is on

1. cyanosis
2. hearth failure
3. arrythm/syncope/chest pain

2

things to ask on Hx

- failure to thrive
- chest infecitons
- dev. delays
- joint pain/rashes/sore throat
- Sx of heart failure
- chest pain/syncope

3

3 important maternal Qs to ask

1. maternal infections
- myocardidits
- rubella
2. maternal meds
3. illnesses

4

4 things to look for on inspection

1. appearance
2. dysmorphism
3. cyanosis
4. resp. distress

5

5 things on auscultation

1. location and streght of murmur
2. systolic/diastolic
3. brachial/femoral discrepancy
4. widely split heart sounds
5. clicks mid systole - mitral valve prolapse

6

2 things to palpate for

1. feel pulses to help determine perfusion
2. palpate heart for murmur or heart strain

7

why are L sided issues not apparent right away

babies dependent on the R side for first few days

8

what cause cyanosis

- not anemia
- de-satuated Hb (50g/L)

9

4 possible causes of cyanosis

1. cardiac
- abnormal mixing of blood
2. pulm.
- poor oxygneation
- VQ mismatch
3. persistent pulm. HT
4. CNS depression

10

**** DDx for cyanotic heart disease (7)

5 Ts
1. Transposition of great arts.
2. Teratlogy of fallot
3. tricuspid atresia
4. truncus arteriosus
5. total anomalous peulm venous drainage
6. Pulm atresia
7. Ebstein abnormality

11

2 CXR clues

1. pulm blood flow
2. heart size

12

what are most heart murmurs

innocent

13

features of innocent murmurs

- vibratory
- muscial
- harmonic
- systolic
- ejection
- gr 1-2

14

features of patho murmurs

- harsh
- non-musical
- systolic and diastilic
- ejection/pnasystolic/ cont.
- over gr2

15

what is still's murmur

- innocent
- flow of blood into LV sets into vibration the chordae
- 2/6 with medium pitch

16

what is venous hum

- innocent
- flow of blood from the head and neck into thorax

17

2 add. feature of innocent murmur

1. accentuated in high output states
2. children well otherwise

18

2 tachy's and megaly's of heart failure

tach
1. tachycardia
2. tachypnea
meh
1. cardiomegaly
2. hepatomegaly

19

5 signs of infant HF

1. tachy
2. failure to thrive
3. hepatomegaly
4. cardiomegaly
5. gallop rhythm

20

5 sings of older child HF

1. tachy
2. SOB, cough, fatigue
3. bibasilar rales, hepatomegaly, cardiomegaly
4. gallop rhyth
5. high JVP, edema

21

2 DDx for heart failure

1. low O2 content
2. high output circ. state

22

4 general Tx of HF

1. cause
2. dietary
3. digoxin,diuretics
4. vasopressors

23

what are palpitations in children

- present as extra beats, chest hurts, feel weird
- red flags - syncope, chest pain, fam Hx, Hx of sudden death
- tachy, irreg rhythm

24

most common arrythmias in children

- tachy most common - SVT through WPW
- vent may be associted with sudden death

25

best thing for chest pain

ECG

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