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Flashcards in Transfusion medicine Deck (28):
1

4 major blood groups

A,B,AB,O

2

what is a blood group in a molecular sense

enzymes on the surface of the erythrocyte

3

what is an AB person in terms of antigen and antibodies

antigen - both A and B
ABs - non

4

what happens in bad major blood group match

AB binds to RBC antigens > activates complement cascade > hemolysis

5

what is major-side incompatibility

transfusion of incompatible RBCs

6

what is minor side incompatibility

transfusion of incompatible plasma

7

what happens if get intravascular complement activation

proinflammatory properties - fever, anaphylaxis, respiratory burst

8

steps in incompatibility rxn

1. complement activation
2. TNF-a production
3. procoagulant activity
4. chemokine production

9

what are minor blood groups

- antigens that do not have circulating ABs, but need to be activated if come into contact with
- less complement activation

10

what happens in minor blood group transfusion

- delayed hemolytic fusion reaction
- still get hemolysis and degradation , but a slower process and often outside of the blood stream

11

what is hemolytic disease of fetus

fetal RBCs enter the maternal blood stream and mother devs ABs to blood, which enters fetal blood stream

12

what types of AB bind to major and minor blood group and significance of this

major - IgM - get pentameters and agglutination
minor - IgG - won't agglutinate

13

what is antiglobulin test

give and AB ABs that bind to IgG on RBC and cause them to agglutinate

14

2 types of antiglobin tests and what they are for

direct (DAT) - tests RBCs- anti-Ig mixed with RBCs to see if they had ABs bound
indirect (IAT) - tests plasma - mix plasma wit RBCs, then anti-Ig mixed

15

what is most important minor blood group

RhD - very immunogenic

16

what 2 things to do for people Rh-

1. give Rh- blood
2. passively immunize women of Rh+ baby if they are Rh-

17

when do we need to match for any other minor group than Rh

only if they already have the AB in their system

18

what is group and screen test

group - patient cells checked for ABO and Rh groups and serum checked for ABs
screen - patient serum checked for alloABs by giving patient serum with panel of RBCs of known antigen types

19

2 types of clincally insignificant ABs

1. those that only bind to cold blood
2. only bind weakly

20

what is crossmatching

test patient serum against some of actual blood units to be used

21

what is trauma blood

Oneg blood - has no major antigens - rare and in short supply

22

what are 5 probs with blood banking and solutions

1. clotting - prevent with citrate
2. spoilage (use up metabolic reserve) - give glucose
3. contamination with bact - try to be sterile
4. supply - payment, altruism

23

4 main components of a blood unit

1. RBC
2. plasma
3. WBCs
4. platelets

24

adv of fractionating blood (3)

1. only give the components needed
2. can give smaller volumes
3. optimize storage conditions

25

life and limiting factors for RBCs

1. 42 days at 1-6C
2. limiting factor for donations

26

platelet shelf life

5 days - prone to shortages due to high demand

27

plasma shelf life

can be frozen for a year

28

what are fractionated blood products

abumin, factors, etc - expensive and get most from the US

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