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Flashcards in Anxiety Deck (38):
1

adaptive function of anxiety

warns of threat - external and internal

2

what are 2 fear pathways

1. low road - fast
2. high road - can inhibit

3

path through slow road

ear>thalamus>amygdala>hypothalamus

4

path through high road

ear>thal>auditory cortex>frontal cortex>amygdala>hypothal

5

what is feature of both roads

1. low - fast and dirty
2. high - slow and accurate

6

how does one learn to fear

aquisition of fear-context association

7

how does NMDA LTP work

firing of NMDA receptor causes a cascade which increases AMPA receptors and sensitizes neuron to fire more readily

8

how are catecholamines involves in LTP

carry meta-information - tells us about the changes in pattern of stimuli, not just if it's there

9

where do catecholamines act

in the brainstem raphe

10

where do we learn to be afraid

learned association between context cues and fear response

11

how are fear and memory linked in the brain

specific fear neurons activated in amygdala in the same manner as they are in the hippocampus

12

how is fear stored in amygdala

as a general feeling of fear and anxiety

13

how does hippocampus become involved in the fear

gives conscious and explicit code to the fear context

14

how is most subcortical brain activity experienced?

subconsciously like visceral sensations

15

3 types of path anxiety for exam

1. panic attack - sudden unprecipitaed anxiety
2. GAD - chronic
3. phobias - excessive fear of stim

16

prevalences of panic disorder for docs

most common for mental health
- 5th most common for GPs
- most go to ER

17

neurotransmitter involvement in regulation of anxiety

NE, 5HT, GABA

18

where do 5HT cells originate

dorsal raphe

19

what happens if take 5HT agonsists

make anxiety - fenfluramine

20

what happens with SSRIs

initial anxiety followed by down regulation of receptors over time

21

where are cell bodies of NE

locus ceruleus

22

2 drugs that increase LC and effects

yohimbine and caffeine - anxiety

23

2 drugs that decrease LC and effects

benzos, imipramine - reduce anxiety

24

5 SSRIs

1. citalopram
2. fluoxetine
3. paroxetine
4. sertraline
5. fluvoxamine

25

names of TCAs

_____ ipramines

26

2 SNRIs

________laflaxine
duloxetine

27

how do GABA receptors work

when bound Cl enters cell and hyperpolarizes it making it less likely to fire - benzo target

28

effects of benzos

sedation, relax, disinhibitions, amnesia

29

special regulatory issues about benzos

restricted drugs

30

mech of TCAs

initially decrease NE in cleft, but eventually downreg. receptors

31

mech of benzos

augment GABA and cause inhibition

32

what is cycle of avoidance

1. situation provokes anxiety
2. escape provides releif - reward
3. anticipatory anxiety
4. escape faster
5 avoid

33

what is generalization of fear in humans

initial panic doesn't matter - eventually can become generalized

34

how does extinction compare to erasing

NOT THE same - extinction supresses fears

35

what happens when remove the cortex in animal with extinction

fear comes back

36

what does CCK have to do with panic

powerfully panicogenic

37

what does CCK do in gut and brain

gut - gall bladder and panc secretion
brain - amygdala to induce panic attack

38

how does epigentic programming by maternal behavior work?

1. mom licks pups
2. pups that got licked have less HPA axis activation with stress
3. maternal grooming alters epigenetic DNA modifications that affect glucocorticod receptor expression

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