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Flashcards in pathology Deck (25):
1

6 ways to classify cardiac patho

1. failure to pump
2. obst. of blood
- from or to heart
3. regurgitatn blood flow
4. shunted blodd
5. disorders of conduction
6. rupture of heart or main vessels

2

6 ways to classify cardiac patho

1. failure to pump
2. obst. of blood
- from or to heart
3. regurgitatn blood flow
4. shunted blodd
5. disorders of conduction
6. rupture of heart or main vessels

3

1. what is failure of the heart pump

usually due to weak contractions of the cardiac muscle or may be due to stiffness of the vent. wall
- often end stage to a process
- lack of blood pumpin

4

what is cardiomyoapathy

heart disease resulting from abnormality of the myocardium
- can be primary (genetic) or secondary due to disease

5

what is initial adaptation to heart failure

1. increase end diastolic volume
2. activate SNS
3. activate RAAS
4. hypertrphy

6

what is issue with hypertrophy

increase in size of myocytes, but not more caps
- means it's vulnerable to decompensation

7

what happens to fluid hemodynamics in heart failure

1. incr. capillary hydrostatic press or decrease eplasm oncotic press
- edema
2. fluid can collect in other cavities

8

5 causes of edema

1. increase hydrostatic P
- CHF
2. reduced plasma oncotic P
- nephrotic syndrome
3. lymph obst
4. Na retention
5. inflammation

9

3 types of edema in order of baddness

1. subcut.
2 pulmonary
3. cerebral

10

2. obstruciton to blodd flow (2 forms)

1. can' t get through heart
2. can 't get too heart

11

casues of poor flow through the heart

problems with valves
- stenosis, calcification

12

causes of problems of blood to heart

obstruction of coronary As
- plaque or occlusion
>>> ischemia

13

triad of thrombus formation from most to least important

1. endothelial injury
2. low flow
3. hypercoag

14

what cause of endothelial injury

esp. at sites of plaques or previous injuries

15

what is issue with abnormal blood flow

normal flow is laminar
1. turbulence
- contact with walls
2. statis
- clotting

16

2 main causes of hypercoag

primary
- genetcs
secondary
- smoking, OCP, preg, immobil

17

2 ways to classify thrombus

1. A or V
2. occlusive or partial

18

4 possible fates of a thrombus

1. propagation - bigger
2. embolization
3. dissolution
4. organization and recanalization

19

3 what is regurg blood flow

failure to maintain unidirectional blood flow
- valves can't close properly and let blood back in

20

4. main causes of shunted blood

typically cangenital that didn't close

21

3 types of shunts

1. L to R - PO or DA
2. R to L - R pressure is higher
3. malformation causing an obstruciton

22

5. disorders of conduction

lots to come

23

6. rupture of great vessels

usually due to trauma - leak out

24

5 causes of shock

1. cardigenic - MI, rupture, tamponade
2. hypovolemic
- fluid loss, hemmorage
3. sepsis
4. neurogenic
5. anaphylaxis

25

3 phases of shock

1. initial non-prgressive
- able to maintain with neuro-humoral
- tachy, vasoconstirction
2. porgressive
- drop pH
- less vasomotor response
- organ begin to fail
3. irreversible
- low contraction
- leak of enzymes
- lyte disturbace
- toast

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