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Flashcards in Nutritional pathology 1 Deck (23):
1

2 main types of nutrition problems

1. defiency
2. excess

2

2 types of deficiency

1. protein energy malnutrition
2. micronutrient def.

3

2 types of excess

1. protein energy excess
2. micronutrient excess

4

3 key aspects to healthy diet

1. sufficient energy
2. essential and non-essential AA and fatty acids
3. vitamin and comineral

5

def. primary malnutrition

one or more components missing from diet

6

def. secondary malnut.

adequate supply, but somehow not getting them (chrons, diarrhea)

7

common first world causes of malnutrition

1. poverty
2. chronic alcholosm
3. acute and chronic illness
4. self-imposed
ignorance

8

2 main body protein comartments

1. somatic - skeletal muscle
2. visceral - organs

9

2 classes of protein energy malnutrition

1. kwashikor- protein deficiency - affects the visceral compartment
2. marasmus - protein AND energy def. - affects skeletal muscle

10

features of marasmus

1. weight > 60% normal
2. growth retardation, loss of muscle
3. preserved visceral protein, albumin
4. anemia, immune def.
5. poor wound healing

11

which PEM is worse

kwashikor

12

feat of kwashikor

1. weight 60-80% normal
2. hypoalbuminemia - edema
3. flaky paint lesions
4. hair changes
5. liver steatosis
6. apathy, listless, anorexia

13

feature of cachexia

1. common in AIDS
2. loss of fat and muscle mass
3. increased resting E expenditure
4. result of cytokines produced by sepsis or tumor

14

mech of muscle breakdown in cachexia

proteolysis-inducing factor activates ubiquitin pathways

15

what is US epi of obesity

35% overweight
30 obese

16

3 neurohormonal regulators of weight

1. afferent system - adipose tissue, pancreas, stomach
2. central in hypothalamus
3. efferent system - feeding behavior, E expenditure

17

what is leptin mech.

1. secreted by adipocytes
2. binds to hypothlamus to stim . POMC/CART
3. tells us to stop eating
-- loss of leptin give severe early obesity

18

what does adiponectin do

guardian angel against obesity
1. direct FFA to muscle for oxidation
2. decrease infux of fats to liver
3. decrease glugogenisis in liver

19

wha tis ghrelin

only know gut hormone to INCREASE food intake (orexigenic)

20

how are obesity and cancer related

hyperinsulinemia leads to greater aromatase and androgen production - get more female cancers

21

3 ways hyperinsulinemia can contribute to CA

1. activate growth pathways
2. increase expression of IGF-1 - anti-apoptotic
3. increase sex steroids

22

can dietary modif. retard onset of diease

YES

23

can diet mod. prevent CA

1. maybe fruit and veg good
2. high animal fat and low fiber implicated in colon CA

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