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Flashcards in Heme neoplasms Deck (25):
1

what are 3 main hematolyhoid tissues involved

1. marrow
2. lymph nodes
3. spleen
less so
- tonsils
- liver
- GI mucosa

2

2 main types of heme cells

1. lymphoid
2. myloid

3

3 main mechs behind neoplams

1. genetic changes
2. unreg. proliferation
3. outgrowth of other cells

4

3 things by which WHO classifies

1. cell lineage
- resemblance to normal cell type
- morphology
- immunophenotyping
2. genetic abberatiokns
3. clinical behavior

5

2 main types of neosplams

1. leukemia - widespread in marrow and ussually peripheral blood
2. lymphoma - discrete masses and not peripheral blood

6

2 major classes of leukemia

1. chronic - insidious and less aggressive
2. acute - rapid onset and aggressive

7

what is further classification of leukemia

1. myloid
2. lymphocytic

8

4 types of leukemia

1. ALL
2. AML
3. CLL
4. CML

9

what are features of lymphoma

- in nodes mostly
- often features of a single lineage stuck in a stage of dev.

10

what are 2 main subtypes of lymphoma

1. hodgkins
2. non-hodgkins
- further subdivided into 35 subtypes

11

2 ways to diagnose and diff. heme neoplasms

1. clinical presentation
2. diagnostic tests

12

5 major lab evaluations of heme malig.

1. morphology
2. cytochem
3. immunocytochem
4. cytogenetics
5. molecular genetics

13

what is examined on morphology

1. what cells look like
2. architecture

14

what is cytochemisty

special stains to help classify lineage of specific cells

15

2 tests in immunohistochemistry

1. immunophenotypes - cell surface markers
2. flow cytometry - tool to detect cellsurface proteins

16

2 tests in cytogenetics

1. karyotype
2. FISH

17

what is important on cytogenetics

50% will have aquired somatic recurrent chromosomal translocations
- mostly activate oncogenes

18

how to chromo abberations arise

- likely random alterations
- genotoxic agents

19

3 important pieces of info given by genetics

1. diagnosis
2. prognosis
3. response to therapy

20

what cells are needed for cytogenetics

live bone marrow cells

21

4 types of chromo abberatiosn

1. deleltion
2. translocaitions
3. aneuploidy
4, amplifications

22

what is common problem with translocaitons

results in activation of cell proliferation gene by bringing it under control of a constituatively active gene in cell type (eg. immunoglobin gene)

23

what is clonality of hematologic neoplasm

all cells are monoclonal - arise from single cell
- if found, can help determine malig, from reactive

24

3 ways to prove monoclonality

1. aquired clonal cytogenetic abnormality
2. new fusion gene
3. for lymphoid
- kappa or B light chain restriction
- Ig gene rearragnement for B cells or T cell -r in T-cells

25

what is use of protein electrophoresis

normal population has a variety of different Ig and will get a spread
- in malig you get a single clone, and thus a single band

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