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Flashcards in Lymphocytes Deck (22):
1

2 types of immune response

1. innate
2. adaptive

2

time for 2 different immune responses

1. innate - hour to days
2. adaptive > 5 days

3

cells for 2 different immune responses

1. innate - WBC's phagocytose
2. adaptive - lymphocytes - antigen antibodies

4

2 main types of lymphocytes and where from

1. B cells - bone marrow
2. T- cells - marrow, but mature in thymus

5

where do 2 different cells exist in lymph nodes

1. B cells - follicles
2. T- cells - paracortical

6

where do lymphocytes exist in spleen

white pulp
1. B cells - lymphoid follicle
2. T- cells - periarteriole sheath

7

what are markers for 2 different lymphocytes dev.

1. B cells - CD19
2. T- cells - CD3

8

2 key reactions during lymphocyte differentiation

1. T-cell receptor gene rearrangment
2. selection and apop.

9

2 function of antigen receptors

1. antigen recognition
2. cell signaling

10

what is rearranged in each lympho to make antigenreceptor

1. B cells - immunoglobulin genes
2. T- cells - T-cell receptor genes

11

3 possible outcomes of rearrangments

1. positive selection - responds well to antigens
2. neg. selections - death bc too stongly self-reactive
3. (90%) cel death - bad rearrangements

12

path of t-cell dev.

common precursor>to thymus>signal for precursors to commit to T>massive cell death

13

marker for increased B and T cell diversity

TdT

14

features of ALL B-cell precursors

- bone marrow infiltration
- pancytopenia
- bone pain
- splenomegaly
- CD19 and Tdt

15

signs of burkit lymphoma

- lymphoid masses in small bowel
- rapid cell turnover
- mature B cells

16

signs of lymphoblastic lymphoma

- thymus ant. mediastinal mass
- CD3 and Tdt

17

** 3 causes of malignant transformation

1. abnormal cell proliferation
2. impaired cell death
3. blocked differentiation

18

2 major times of mutations to occur

1. DNA breaks during rearragment for antigens
2. clonal expansion- after contact antigen

19

Aprox. number of mutations required for malignant transformation in ALL

6

20

when do most mutations occur for ALL

before birth

21

better target to identify residual blasts in blood

immunoglobulin or T-cell markers - more precise that microscolpy (5%)

22

what does chromosomal translocation do to cause ALL

overexpression of oncogenes at breakpoint

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