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Flashcards in Pain: Clinician Deck (26):
1

def. of pain

unpleasant subj. experience primarily assoc. with tissue damage or dercribed in terms of tissue damage

2

what is candian prevalence of chronic pain

29%

3

where do pain treatment disparities stem from

1. healthcare system
2. culture diffs
3. clinician/patient interaction

4

def. of disease

specific clinical entity assoc. with disturbed function or structure of body

5

def. of illness

conception of sickness including
1. symptoms
2. interpretation
3. expression of Sx
4. coping behavs

6

4 aspects of biopsychosocial model

1. sick role
2. illness behavs.
3. distress
4. physical probs

7

what are psych aspects of pain

1. basic cog. processes (attn., coping)
2. social experiences
3. pain behaviors

8

6 predisposing factors to chronic pain

1. abuse
2. marital discord
3. fam. violence
4. emot. trauma
5. fam. members with chronic pain
6. stress exposure

9

def. of chronic pain

> 6 months and beyond the normal healing time for an injury. Autonomic and reflex changes improve with time, but psych aspects tend to augment

10

what is main difference between chronic pain and chronic pain syndrome

sadness, hopelessness, social isolation, failed treatments, many doctors, demoralization

11

red flags for dev. of chronic pain disorder (6)

1. intense and prolonged pain beyond that expected
2. spreading and new pains
3. failure to respond to treatments
4. dev. of PTSD
5. work difficulties
6. inability of employer to give modified work

12

what is nociceptive pain

pain that is the result of the normal operation of the pain system and arises from injury

13

what is neuropathic pain

pain that arises from primary injury or dysfunction and nervous system reulting from injury to nerves, PNS or CNS

14

what can explain ritual pain tolerance

1. endorphins
2. altered mind states
3. both

15

what are alpha and theta waves

alpha - normal 8-13 cyc/sec waves seen in everyday life
theta - 4-7 /sec waves seen in light sleep, deep thinking, and ritual pain experience

16

3 ways that hyponsis supresses pain

1. splitting consciousness
2. activation spinal cord descending pathways to block pain
3. altering the meaning of pain

17

what is a placebo

ineffective treatment believed to be effective

18

3 things placebo can fix

1. bronchospasm
2. pain
3. posture tremors

19

2 main types of MRI

1. evoked responses in brain areas
2. correlated activity between brain areas (functional connectivity)

20

what does structural imagin find in pain

reduced grey matter volume in in cingulate and insular cortex

21

what is anterior ACC involved in

subjective pain perception

22

what is found in expert meditators

reduced pain unpleasantness and enhanced activity in the anterior insula and cingulate cotrex

23

2 therapies that can increase grey matter

1. CBT
2. decreased pain catastrophizing

24

what is found in MRI in hypnosis people

greater functional connectivity between hemis on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

25

what is placebo effect correlated with

increased white matter integrity

26

what are non-dermatomal somatosensory deficits

appear after traumatic injuries and are associated with bad prognosis for pain

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