Diabetes classification and complications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diabetes classification and complications Deck (24):
1

what is DM

group of metabolic disorders char by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both

2

how many canadians

>7%

3

what are diagnostic criteria for diabetes (4)

1. FBG >7
2. casual BG > 11 + Sx
3. 2hrBG > 11
4. A1C >6.5%

4

how is threshold for diagnosis based on

future risk of retinopathy

5

5 Sx of hyperglycemia

1. polyuria/nocturia
2. polydipisia
3. hyperphagia
4. weight loss
5. visual blur

6

what is type 1

idiopathic B-cell destruction leading to absolute insulin deficiency

7

3 results of poor glucose transport into cell

1. incr. fatty acid mobilization, because lipase is not inhibited by insulin
2. hyperglycemia
3. increased glucogenisis becuase don't have any in the cell

8

what are downstream effects of fatty acid mobilization

1. glycerol and FA transported to liver
2. turned into acetyl CoA
3. acetyl CoA turned into ketones

9

how do ketones cause acidosis

consumption of bicarb

10

5 consequences of ketoacidosis

1. weakness, fatigue,
2. kussmaul resp
3. fruity breath odor
4. nausea vomiting
5. high WBC count

11

4 complications of ketoacidosis

1. hypotension
2. depressed sensorium
3. cerebral edema
4. electrolyte abnormalities

12

5 principles of DKA managment

1. prevent hypokalemia
2. restore ECF volume
3. correct met acidosis with insulin
4. manage hyperosmolarity
5. ID precipitating cause an treat

13

what is main problem in DM2

insulin resistance due to genes and lifestyle/diet

14

what happens in normal B-cell with insulin resistance

make more insulin to control glucose

15

what are 2 key and 1 minor cellular consequences of insulin binding

1. GLUT transporter bring in glucose
2. up glucose metabolism
3 - minor - cell growth and differentiation - leads to small babies if not given insulin

16

8 risk factors for insulin resitance

1. age
2. obesity
3. sedentary lifestyle
4. ethnicity
5. familiy Hx
6. metabolic syndrome
7. PCOS
8. gestational diabetes

17

what are the other 2 types of diabetes

1. secondary - known cause , genes, panc disease
2. gestational - early sign of later type 2

18

3 acute complications of DM

1. hyperglycemic syndromes (DKA or hyperosmolar)
2. infecitons
3. hypoglycemia, esp from treatment

19

how do long term complications come about

too much glucose to be normally broken down, so goes into another pathway

20

4 general types of complications

1. retinopathy
2. neuropathy
3. nephropathy
4. macrovascular

21

6 complications of neuropathy

1. pain
2. sensory ataxia
3. ulceration
4. infection
5. amputation
6. charcot syndrome

22

what are ocular complications (3)

1. retinal disease
a. nonproliferative
b. proliferative - new blood vessels form to make up
c. macular edema
2. cataracts
3. glaucoma

23

how does nephropathy occur

hyperalbumenuria causes glomelural damage

24

3 macrovascular events

1. CAD
2. cerebrovascular
3. peripheral vascular

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