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1

Body of knowledge concerned with the action
of chemicals on biologic systems, especially by
binding to regulatory molecules (receptors) and
activating or inhibiting normal body processe

pharmacology

2

Area of pharmacology concerned with the
use of chemicals in the prevention, diagnosis,
and treatment of disease, especially in humans

MEDICAL PHARMACOLOGY

3

Area of pharmacology concerned with the
undesirable effects of chemicals on
biologic systems

TOXICOLOGY

4

Identifies the exact mechanism of action
of one particular drug
Identifies the receptors

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

5


Any substance that brings about a change
in biologic function through chemical actions

DRUG

6

Specific molecule in the biologic system that
plays a regulatory role

receptor

7

Drugs are given at a site ___________ from the
intended site of action

distant

8

general range of drug size

100 - 1000

9

MW For selective binding

100

10

MW For traversing to different barriers of the body

1000

11

MW
 Cannot move within the body
 Given directly at the site of action

>1000

12


 Chemical forces or bonds through
which the drug interacts with the
receptors
 Weaker bonds are more selective
bonds

DRUG RECEPTOR BONDS

13

DRUG RECEPTOR BONDS
 Strongest
 Irreversible

COVALENT

14

DRUG RECEPTOR BONDS
 More common
 Weaker
 Eg, between cation and an anion

ELECTROSTATIC BONDS

15

DRUG RECEPTOR BONDS
 Weakest
 Highly lipid soluble drug

HYDROPHOBIC BONDS

16

To reach its receptors and bring about biologic
effect
 A drug molecule (eg, sedative) must
travel from the site of __________
(eg, gastrointestinal tract) to the site
of ________ (eg, brain)

administration- action

17


 Movement of drug molecules into and within
the biologic environment

PERMEATION

18

 Movement of molecules through the watery
extracellular and intracellular spaces

AQUEOUS DIFFUSION

19

aqueous diffusion is a passive or active process?

passive

20

AQUEOUS DIFFUSION is governed by

Governed by Fick’s law

21

where does aqueous diffusion take place? (membranes of ....)

Membranes of capillaries with small waterfilled pores

22

Movement of molecules through membranes
and other lipid structures

lipid diffusion

23

type of diffusion
Most important factor for drug permeation

lipid diffusion

24

LIPID DIFFUSION is governed by

Governed by Fick’s law

25

LIPID diffusion is a passive or active process?

PASSIVE

26

TYPE OF PERMEATION
Drugs transported across barriers by
mechanisms that carry similar endogenous
substances
Capacity limited

TRANSPORT BY SPECIAL CARRIERS

27

IS TRANSPORT BY SPECIAL CARRIERS GOVERNED BY FICK'S LAW

NO

28

TRANSPORT BY SPECIAL CARRIERS
TYPES OF TRANSPORT

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
FACILITATED DIFFUSION

29

No energy required
 Downhill

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

30

Needs energy
 Against a concentration gradient

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

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