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Flashcards in male reproductive system Deck (59):
1

exocrine function of testis

production of spermatozoa

2

endocrine function of testis

secretion of testosterone

3

Accessory reproductive glands

seminal vesicle
prostate gland
cowper’s gland/bulbo-urethral glands

4

organ of copulation

Penis

5

Testicular capsule:
outer layer

Tunica vaginalis

6

Testicular capsule
most prominent layer

Tunica albuginea

7

Testicular capsule:
innermost layer

Tunica vasculosa

8

testicular capsule is capable of

contraction

9

Few & found in between the spermatogenic cells

Tall, columnar, pillar-like cells extending upward through the full thickness of the epithelium

sertoli cells

10

functions of sertoli cells

Functions:

For mechanical support & protection of the developing sperm cells

Play an active role in the release of mature spermatozoa

Phagocytic activity – digest cytoplasmic fragments

Steroid production from progesterone

5. Secretes androgen binding protein &
inhibin in the adult

6. Receptor-mediated binding of testosterone &
its metabolism to dehydrotestosterone

7. Serves as a conduit for the passage of
nutrients from the blood vascular system to
the spermatocytes & spermatids

11

Sperm cells closely associated between Sertoli cells

4-8 layers from the basal lamina to the lumen

Differentiate progressively from basal region to the lumen

Most mature are nearest to the lumen

spermatogenic cells

12

Comprises the entire sequence of events by which the spermatogonia are transformed into spermatozoa

spermatogenesis

13

PHASE OF SPERMATOGENESIS
The most primitive spermatogonia give rise to several successive generations of spermatogonia and yields spermatocytes

Spermatocytogenesis

14

PHASE OF SPERMATOGENESIS
The spermatocytes undergo two maturation division which reduce the chromosomal number by half & produce a cluster of spermatids

2. Meiosis

15

PHASE OF SPERMATOGENESIS
The spermatids undergo a series of cytological transformation leading to formation of spermatozoa

Spermiogenesis

16

Slender motile flagellated bodies

Mature sperm

17

3 Phases of spermatogenesis

Spermatocytogenesis
2. Meiosis
Spermiogenesis

18

single ejaculation contains how many sperms

200-600 M

19

Inactive in the ducts; activated by secretions of accessory genital glands

Longer lifespan in the male genital tract than in the female reproductive tract

Mature Sperm

20

parts of the mature sperm

head
tail

21

parts of the tail of mature sperm

a. Neck
b. Middle piece
c. Principal piece
d. End piece

22

part of sperm
Flattened ovall body, pear shaped

Made up of the nucleus carrying all genetic traits

Acrosomal cap

head

23

part of sperm tail
Core – axoneme

Ring of 9 dense course fibers

Mitochondrial sheath

middle piece

24

part of sperm tail
Longest portion

Absence of mitochondrial sheath

Outer course fibers and fibrous sheath

Principal piece

25

part of sperm tail
Short slender terminal segment

Covered only by flagellar membrane

End Piece

26

Endocrine component of the testis

Produces androgens

Irregular polyhedral closely packed, occurring in clusters

With extensive SER

Interstitial Cell of Leydig

27

Short straight continuation of the seminifrous tubule

w/o Spermatogenic cells; only sertoli cells

tubuli recti

28

Network of anastomosing channels found in the mediastinum


Cuboidal lining epithelium

rete testis

29

Arises from the rete testis

Forms 10 conical bodies (coni vasculosi)

Ductuli Efferentes

30

Lined by alternating tall ciliated and short non-ciliated (uneven/scalloped epithelium)

Non-ciliated cells with microvilli coated with glycocalyx

W/ only motile cilia in the male repro tract

Ductuli Efferentes

31

Fusion of the coni vasculosi forms a single highly coiled duct

Site of sperm accumulation, storage & maturity

Head, body & tail

epididymis

32

Lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocila

Presence of smooth musculature gradually increasing in thickness from proximal to distal

epididymis

33

epithelium of epididymis

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocila

34

Straight tube, direct continuation of the epididymis

ductus deferens

35

Ductus Deferens
3 coats

Mucosa
Muscularis
Fibrosa

36

coat of ductus deferens
Thrown into folds (star-shaped appearance)

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Mucosa:


37

coat of ductus deferens
Thickest coat

muscularis

38

3 smooth muscle layers of muscularis

- inner longitudinal
- middle circular
- outer longitudinal

39

coat of ductus deferens

Fibroelastic CT

Adventitia:

40

Short, terminal segment formed at the junction of the ampulla & the excretory ducts of the seminal vesicle

Pierces the prostate gland & opens in the urethra

ejaculatory duct

41

Thin mucosa thrown into folds

Simple columnar epithelium / pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Transitional epithelium near the urethral opening

ejaculatory duct

42


Highly convoluted glandular outpocketings that opens in the ductus deferens at the junction of the ampulla and ejaculatory duct

Yellowish viscid alkaline fluid w/ fructose, fibrinogen & Vit.C

Not storage site for spermatozoa

seminal vesicle

43

Mucosa is highly folded forming irregular chambers (honeycomb appearance)

Prominent muscular wall (inner & outer longitudinal)

seminal vesicle

44

Lining epithelium – pseudostratified non-ciliated

Smooth muscle supplied by SNS; contracts during ejaculation forcing secretions into the urethra via the ampulla

seminal vesicle

45

Large unpaired gland surrounding the first part of the urethra

Secretions make up 75% of semen; thin, milky; rich in citric acid & hydrolytic enzymes

Dependent on androgens for its secretory activities

prostate gland

46

Made up of 30-50 tubulo-alveolar gland

Stroma & capsule consist of dense fibroelastic CT w/ numerous smooth muscle innervated by SNS

prostate gland

47

Secretory alveoli lined by simple columnar or pseudostratified columnar non-ciliated epithelium

Epithelium folded into irregular projections dividing the lumen into compartments

Prostatic concretions/corpora amylacea

prostate gland

48

prostate gland is divided into

peripheral and central portion

49

portion of prostate gland
composed of paraurethral glands that open into the prostatic urethra; BPH

central portion

50

portion of prostate gland
composed of tubulo-alveolar glands; prostatic malignancy

peripheral portion

51

Cowper’s gland

Two small glands located close to the bulb of the urethra

Compound tubulo-alveolar gland with tubules/ducts

Bulbourethral Gland

52


Secrete mucus into the urethra for epithelial lubrication

Bulbourethral Gland

53

Lining epithelium of Bulbourethral Gland

simple columnar

54

Paired corpora cavernosa & single corpus spongiosum

Condensed fibroelastic around the cavernous bodies continuous with the loose hypodermis

Pectinifrom septum

penis

55

consist of cavernous sinuses supported by trabeculae (fibroelastic tissue w/ smooth muscles)

erectile tissues of penis

56

end of excitement; sympathetic NS

Detumescence

57

erection involves the _________ ANS

parasympathetic

58

Vascular sinuses of penis supplied by

helicine arteries

59

The product of ejaculation (spermatozoa & seminal fluid); 3.5 ml containing 50-150 million spematozoa/ml

Capacitation in female genital tract

Fructose & citrate for motility

Crystals of Bottcher

semen

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