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Flashcards in HEMA LEC - Anemia Deck (134)
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1

defined as a decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to the tissues.They can also be classified based on etiology/cause.

Anemia

2

defined as a decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to the tissues.They can also be classified based on etiology/cause.

Anemia

3

The anemias can be classified morphologically using

RBC indices (MCV, MCH, and MCHC).

4

Anemia is suspected when the hemoglobin is [male and female]

5

RBC mass is normal, but plasma volume is increased.
Secondary to an unrelated condition and can be transient in nature.
Reticulocyte count normal; normocytic/normochromic anemia.

Relative (pseudo) anemia

6

Causes include conditions that result in hemodilution, such as pregnancy and volume overload.

Relative (pseudo) anemia

7

causes of relative pseudo anemia include conditions ___

conditions which result in hemodilution

8

RBC mass is decreased, but plasma volume is normal.

Absolute anemia

9

indicative of a true decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin.

Absolute anemia

10

mechanisms involved in absolute anema

Decreased delivery of red cells into circulation
Increased loss of red cells from the circulation

11


a. Most common form of anemia in the United States

Iron-deficiency anemia

12

Prevalent in infants and children, pregnancy, excessive menstrual flow, elderly with poor diets, malabsorption syndromes, chronic blood loss (GI blood loss, hookworm infection)

Iron-deficiency anemia

13

Laboratory: Microcytic/hypochromic anemia; serum iron, ferritin, hemoglobin/hematocrit, RBC indices, and reticulocyte count low; RDW and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) high; smear shows ovalocytes/ pencil forms.

Iron-deficiency anemia

14

Clinical Symptoms: Fatigue, dizziness, pica, stomatisis (cracks in the corners of the mouth), glossitis (sore tongue), and koilonychias (spooning of the nails).

Iron-deficiency anemia

15

Due to an inability to use available iron for hemoglobin production.

ACD
Anemia of Chronic Disease

16

b. Impaired release of storage iron associated with increased hepcidin levels

ACD
Anemia of Chronic Disease

17

is a liver hormone and a positive acute-phase reactant. It

Hepcidin

18

plays a major role in body iron regulation by influencing intestinal iron absorption and release of storage iron from macrophages.

Hepcidin

19

Inflammation and infection cause hepcidin levels to ___; this decreases release of iron from stores.

increase

20

Laboratory: Normocytic/normochromic anemia, or slightly microcytic/hypochromic anemia; increased ESR; normal to increased ferritin; low serum iron and TIBC
a. Associated with persistent infections, chronic inflammatory disorders (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, Hodgkin lymphoma, cancer)

ACD

21

second only to iron deficiency as a common cause of anemia

ACD

22

Caused by blocks in the protoporphyrin pathway resulting in defective hemoglobin synthesis and iron overload


Sideroblastic anemia

23

Excess iron accumulates in the mitochondrial region of the immature erythrocyte in the bone marrow and encircles the nucleus; cells are called ringed sideroblasts.

Sideroblastic anemia

24

Excess iron accumulates in the mitochondrial region of the mature erythrocyte in circulation; cells are called siderocytes; inclusions are siderotic granules (Pappenheimer bodies on Wright’s stained smears)

Sideroblastic anemia

25

Siderocytes are best demonstrated using ___

Perl’s Prussian blue stain.

26

Laboratory: Microcytic/hypochromic anemia with increased ferritin and serum iron; TIBC is decreased

Sideroblastic anemia

27

Two Types of sideroblastic anemia:
1.) Primary – irreversible; cause of the blocks unknown
a.) Two RBC populations (dimorphic) are seen.
b.) This is one of the myelodysplastic syndromes – refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS)
2.) Secondary – reversible; causes include alcohol, anti-tuberculosis drugs, chloramphenicol

PRIMARY
SECONDARY

28

type of sideroblastic anemia
irreversible; cause of the blocks unknown

Primary

29

This is one of the myelodysplastic syndromes – refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS)

primary sideroblastic anemia

30

Two RBC populations (dimorphic) are seen. [type of sideroblastic anemia

primary sideroblastic anemia

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