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1

Respiration: Three Major Steps

Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
Internal respiration

2

Moving air in and out of lungs

Pulmonary ventilation

3

Gas exchange between alveoli and blood

External respiration

4

Gas exchange between blood and cells

Internal respiration

5

upper respiratory system

Nose and pharynx

6

lower respiratory system

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs

7

consists of All airways that carry air to lungs

conduction zone

8

parts included in conduction zone

Nose, pharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

9

Sites within lungs where gas exchange occurs

respiratory zone

10

parts of the respiratory zone

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli

11

Warm, humidify, filter/trap dust and microbes

nose

12

Detect olfactory stimuli

nose

13

Modify vocal sounds

nose

14

“Voice box”

larynx

15

Made largely of cartilage

larynx

16

cartilages of the larynx

thyroid
cricoid
arytenoids

17

cartilage of larynx
: V-shaped
“Adam's apple”: projects more anteriorly in males
Vocal cords “strung” here (and to arytenoids

thyroid cartilage

18

leaf-shaped piece; covers airway
During swallowing, larynx moves up so ------ covers opening into trachea

epiglottis

19

cartilage of larynx
inferior most portion

cricoid

20

cartilage of larynx
superior to cricoid

Arytenoids

21

windpipe

trachea

22

Anterior to esophagus and thoracic vertebrae
Extends from end of larynx to primary bronchi

trachea

23

opening in trachea for tube

tracheostomy

24

enter the lungs medially

primary bronchiu

25

Measured by spirometer

Lung Volumes

26

volume of air that can be inhaled beyond tidal volume (TV)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV

27

volume of air that can be exhaled beyond TV

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

28

Air remaining in lungs after a maximum expiration

= residual volume (RV)

29

TV + IRV

Inspiratory capacity

30

RV + ERV

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

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