endocrine glands Flashcards Preview

Botany > endocrine glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in endocrine glands Deck (68)
Loading flashcards...
1

– stimulates growth of bones, muscles and organs by increasing gene expression

GH

2

-resists protein breakdown and favor fat breakdown during periods of starvation

GH

3

↓GH, young person, small but normally proportioned

PITUITARY DWARF

4

- ↑GH present before bones finish growing in length
-exaggerated bone growth
-abnormally tall

GIANTISM

5

↑GH after completion of bone growth in length
-abnormally large facial features and hands

GIANTISM

6

PERIODS OF INCREASED GH SECRETION

↑GH after completion of bone growth in length
-abnormally large facial features and hands

7

somatomedins
-influences part of the effect of GH
-similar in structures to insulin and can bind to insulin receptors
-secretion from tissues is increased by GH

insulin-like growth factors

8

-binds to MBR on cells in cortex of adrenal glands
-increases the secretion of cortisol/hydrocortisone
-required to keep adrenal cortex from degenerating

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

9

-bind to melanocytes in skin and increase skin pigmentation

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

10

– bind to MBR on cells of gonads
-regulate growth, development, and functioning of gonads

Gonadotropins

11

cause the ovulation of oocytes and secretion of estrogen and progesterone

luteinizing hormone

12

-stimulates interstitial cells of the testes to secrete testosterone

Interstitial Cell-stimulating hormone

13

stimulates development of follicles in ovaries and sperm cells

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) –

14

binds to MBR in cells of breast
-helps promote development of breast during pregnancy

prolactin

15

-stimulates the production of milk following pregnancy

prolactin

16

binds to MBR on melanocytes
-causes MBR on melanocytes to synthesize melanin
-structure is similar to ACTH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

17

-increases water reabsorption by kidney tubules (result: less water lost as urine)
-causes blood vessels to constrict

ADH VASOPRESSIN

18

– caused by lack of ADH secretion
-production of large amount of dilute urine

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

19

causes contraction of smooth muscle cells of uterus
-causes milk letdown from breasts of lactating women

OXYTOCIN

20

-made up of 2 lobes connected by isthmus
-lobes are located on each side of trachea
-one of the largest endocrine glands
-appears more red because it is highly vascular
-surrounded by a connective tissue capsule

THYROID GLAND

21

secrete hormone calcitonin

C Cells or parafollicular cells

22

enlargement of thyroid gland
-excess TSH

GOITER

23

– lack of thyroid hormones

HYPOTHYROIDISIM

24

– hypothyroidism in infants
-mental retardation, short stature, abnormally formed skeletal structure

cretinism

25

hypothyroidism in adults
-decreased metabolic rate, sluggishness, reduced ability to perform routine tasks

myxedema

26

elevated rate of thyroid hormone secretion
-metabolic rate, extreme nervousness, chronic fatigue

hyperthyroidism

27

• Graves disease – results when immune system produces abnormal proteins that are similar in structure and function to TSH
-often accompanied by exophthalmia (bulging of eyes)

graves disease

28

required to synthesize thyroid hormones
-taken up by thyroid follicles

IODINE

29

secreted if blood concentration of Ca becomes too high
-binds to MBR of osteoclasts and reduces rate of Ca resorption by inhibiting osteoclasts

Calcitonin

30


-embedded in posterior wall of the thyroid gland
-secrete parathyroid hormone

PARATHYROID GLANDS

Decks in Botany Class (324):