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Flashcards in CELLS - HISTO LEC Deck (68)
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1

Two Basic Parts of the Cell:

1. Cytoplasm
2. Nucleus

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- metabolically active structures or complexes, with or without membranes, in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells

Organelles

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outermost component of the cell
-separates cytoplasm from extracellular environment

PLASMA MEMBRANE

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-defines the outer limit of the cell
-continuum exists between extracellular and intracellular macromolecules

PLASMA MEMBRANE

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-contains integrins
-made of phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, oligosaccharide chains

PLASMA MEMBRANE

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-a selective barrier regulating passage of materials into and out of the cell
-facilitates transport of molecules

PLASMA MEMBRANE

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-range from 7.5 to 10 nm in thickness
-visible only in electron microscope

PLASMA MEMBRANE

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consisting of two nonpolar long-chain fatty acids linked to a charged polar head bearing a phosphate group

Amphipathic –

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*Phospholipids are most stable when organized into a

double layer (hydrophobic toward the middle).

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*Phospholipids in each half of the bilayer are

different.

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restricts movement of phospholipid fatty acids; stabilizes lipid bilayer

Cholesterol –

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areas of less movement
-have higher concentrations of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids

Lipid rafts -

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proteins/linkages which produce a continuous exchange of influences, in both directions, between ECM and cytoplasm

Integrins –

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– fluid component of cytoplasm

Cytosol

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– proteins which determine the shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

Cytoskeleton

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minor cytoplasmic structures which are generally deposits of carbohydrates, lipids, or pigments

Inclusions –

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outer lipids which include oligosaccharide chains that extend outward from the cell surface
-contribute to glycocalyx

Glycolipids –

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– delicate cell surface coating formed by glycolipids

Glycocalyx

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major constituent of membranes


Proteins –

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TYPES OF PROTEINS

• Integral
• Peripheral
• Multipass Transmembrane

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– small electron-dense particles
-all have 2 subunits of different sizes
-act to catalyze the process of protein translation

Ribosomes

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– extends from the surface of the nucleus to the cell membrane
-encloses a cisternae
-SINGLE MEMBRANE

Endoplasmic Reticulum

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series of intercommunicating channels and sacs

Cisterna –

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Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum

1. Synthesis
• SER – lipid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism
• RER – protein synthesis
2. Transport
3. Storage
4. Detoxification

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specialized for protein secretion
-synthesizes and segregates proteins not destined for cytosol
-initial glycosylation of glycoproteins
-assembly of mutlichain proteins
-granular, basophilic cytoplasmic surface due to the presence of polysomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum –

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not basophilic; best seen with TEM
-More tubular
-phospholipid synthesis
-steroid synthesis
-abundant in many liver cells
-sequesters and releases Ca2+ (sarcoplasmic reticulum)
-has enzymes for lipid and glycogen metabolism


Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum –

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– completes posttranslational modifications of proteins synthesized in the RER
-packages and addresses these proteins to proper destinations

Golgi Apparatus or Golgi complex

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GA is named after

-named after Camillo Golgi

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originated as condensing vesicles in GA
-found in cells that store a product until its release by exocytosis is signaled by a metabolic, hormonal or neural message

Secretory granules –

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secretory granules with dense contents of digestive enzymes

Zymogen granules –

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