PHARMACOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Flashcards Preview

Botany > PHARMACOLOGY CHAPTER 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PHARMACOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Deck (97)
Loading flashcards...
1

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
 – noxious plant and animal preparations were used as medicines to rid of evil spirits

Earliest/First Phase

2

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
– rational or scientific phase

Third Phase

3

PHASES OF DRUG USAGE
– experience enabled people to use appropriate medicine

Second Phase

4


-concerned with the processes that determine the concentration of drugs in body fluids and tissues over time
-what the body does to the drug

1. PHARMACOKINETICS

5


-study of the actions of drugs on target organs
-what the drug does to the body


2. PHARMACODYNAMICS

6

– relationship between the concentration of a drug in a tissue and the magnitude of the tissue’s response to that of a drug

Dose-response relationship

7

a process wherein drugs produce their effects by binding to protein receptors in target tissues

Signal Transduction –

8

- study of poisons and organ toxicity
-focuses on the harmful effects of drugs

TOXICOLOGY –

9

– medical science concerned with the use of drugs in the treatment of disease

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS

10

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS is also known as

Medical Pharmacology

11

science and profession concerned with the preparation, storage, dispensing, and proper use of drug products

PHARMACY –

12

study of drugs isolated from natural resources

PHARMACOGNOSY –

13

– branch of organic chemistry that specializes in the design and chemical synthesis of drugs

MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY

14

formulation and chemical properties of pharmaceutical products

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY or PHARMACEUTICS –

15

a natural product, a chemical substance or pharmaceutical preparation intended for administration to a human or animal to diagnose or treat a disease

drug

16

drug is from the french word

drogue

17

drogue mean

dried herbs for cooking

18

other terms for drug

medication and medicament

19

a drug produced outside the body, either synthetic or natural

Xenobiotic –

20

relationship among the drug molecule, its target receptor and resulting pharmacologic activity

Structure-activity relationship –

21

made by drying or pulverizing a plant or animal tissue, extracting substances from a natural product
-difficult to quantify pharmacologic effects of crude drug preparations because: a) they contain multiple ingredients b) amounts vary

crude drug preparation

22

ex of crude drug preparation

coffee, tea, opium

23

drug preparation
isolation of pure drug compounds from natural sources

Pure drug compounds

24

type of drug preparation

 – drug products suitable for administration of a specific dose of a drug by a particular route of administration
-most are from pure drug compounds, some from crude drug preparations (herbal remedies)

Pharmaceutical preparations or dosage forms

25

most common preparations for oral administration because:

tablets & capsules

26

– a hard pill (from a punch and die mechanism)
-must disintegrate after it has been ingested, then must dissolve in gastrointestinal fluids

Tablets

27

Inert Ingredients (4)

• Fillers – provide bulk
• Lubricants – prevent sticking to the punch and die during manufactire
• Adhesives – maintain tablet stability in the bottle
• Disintegrants – facilitate solubilization of the tablet when it reaches gastrointestinal fluids

28

– consist of polymers that will not disintegrate in gastric acid but will break down in more basic ph of the intestines
-used to protect drugs that would otherwise be destroyed by gastric acid a
-used to slow the release and absorption of a drug when a large dose is given at once

Enteric coatings

29

– release the drug from the preparation over many hours.

*Sustained release products/ extended-release products

30

Methods used to extend the release of a drug (3)

1. Controlled diffusion – release of a drug is regulated by a rate-controlling membrane
2. Controlled dissolution – done by inert polymers that gradually break doen In bady fluids
3. Osmotic pressure– an osmotic agent attracts gastrointestinal fluid at a constant rate
-attracted fluid forces drug out of tablet through a small orifice

Decks in Botany Class (324):