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Flashcards in pharmaco - chapter 6 Deck (47)
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1

type of cholinomimetic drug

• Inhibiting the hydrolysis of endogenous Ach

Indirect-acting

2

type of cholinomimetic drug

• Binding/activate cholinoceptors

Direct-acting

3

4 impt choline esters

acetycholine
carbachol
betanechol
methacholine

4

type of direct-acting drug
- Permanently charged quaternary NH4 group




choline ester

5

type of direct-acting drug
-Relatively insoluble in lipids
-Poorly absorbed

choline ester

6

type of direct-acting drug
-Hydrolyzed in the GIT

choline ester

7

type of direct-acting
Hydrophilic

choline ester

8

type of direct-acting drug
Poorly distributed in the CNS

choline ester

9

type of choline ester
- Addition of methyl CH3
- 3x more resistant to hydrolysis compared to Ach

METHACHOLINE

10

TYPE OF DIRECT-ACTING DRUG
- Act mostly with muscarinic receptors
(muscarine, pilocarpine)
- Act with nicotinic receptors(nicotine, lobeline)

ALKALOIDS

11

4 impt alkaloids

nicotine
pilocarpine
lobeline
muscarine

12

type of alkaloid
- Liquid
- Sufficiently lipid-soluble to be absorbed across
the skin

NICOTINE

13

type of alkaloid
- Quaternary amine
- Less completely absorbed from the GIT
- Toxic when ingested
- Eg, in certain mushrooms, it even enters the brain

muscarine

14

type of alkaloid

- Plant derivative
- Similar to nicotine

LOBELINE

15

type of Ach
– methyl group at α carbon was changed to amino group

c. Carbachol

16

type of Ach
– addition of methyl group at β carbon, replacement of methyl group with amino group at α carbon

Betanechol

17

type of Ach
addition of methyl group at the β carbon

methacholine

18

type of NH4 group

-no more electrons to share, cannot attach
-becomes insoluble in lipids


quaternary

19

type of NH4 group
-cannot be given orally because it has a short duration of action (easily hydrolyzed because water- loving)

quaternary

20

type of NH4 group
-no penetrability of CNS because easily hydrolyzed in GIT, cannot reach CNS

quaternary

21

unlike choline esters, they don’t have parent drugs because most of them are derived from plants

2. Alkaloids –

22

type of direct-acting drug
-longer duration of action
-can be given through the oral route
-not easily hydrolyzed by GIT

alkaloids

23

type of alkaloid
– cigarette
-isolated as a liquid
-easily absorbed across the skin
-risk is the same for active and passive smoker

nicotine

24

type of alkaloid
isolated from mushrooms

Muscarine

25

-if there is mushroom poisoning, the signs and symptoms would be

parasympathetic (diarrhea, sweating, increase in salivation, increase in urination)

26

ciliary muscle contraction would allow ___ of aqueous humor

outflow

27

what happens if aqueous humor accumulates

intraocular pressure increases - glaucoma

28

type of drug to give to someone with glaucoma

pilocarpine

29

Parasympathetic antagonist – will ____ the lungs

dilate

30

can you give parasympathetic antagonist to asthmatic patients

yes

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